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140 ‘Smart’ Bandages Could Heal Wounds More Quickly

17 septiembre, 2020
Watch the video and answer: 1. Scientists have created a new material called ‘hydrogel’ that closely resembles the human skin. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 2. In what pattern are the titanium wires embedded into this new stretchy polymer? A circular pattern. A zig-zag pattern. A rectangular pattern. 3. Medication spreads across the bandage through ______. titanium wires.  tiny channels. microsensors. 4. What is used to alert patients and doctors of changes at particular spots?  LED lights. Microsensors. Different sounds. 5. The new polymer will be suitable for application ______. only on the skin of the body. only inside the body. both on the skin and inside the body.

139 Community Solar Homes Grow Across US

17 septiembre, 2020
Watch the video and answer: IgonnaVideo 1. The cooperative began with only ______________. two neighbors. two neighborhoods. twelve neighbors. 2. The problem is that Washington gets good sunshine only in summer and spring. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 3. Panels can cost from ___________________ depending on the size of the system. $15,000 to $30,000. $15,000 to $35,000. $5,000 to $30,000. 4. There is a ___ percent federal tax credit for going solar. 3. 13. 30. 5. Savings in the electrical bills can be seen immediately. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 6. The cooperative has helped the development of solar-friendly energy legislation in the local government. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

138 Diabetes Risk Higher Among Overweight

17 septiembre, 2020
Watch the video and answer:   IGONNAVIDEO 1. The World Health Organization says in just five years [2015], more than ____________ adults will be overweight. 2,000,000. 2,000,000,000. 2,000,000,000,000. 2. At the beginning of the study, half of the participants had been diagnosed with diabetes. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 3. Even among adults over 75, having a higher body mass index was associated with an increased risk of diabetes as twice as great. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 4. Obese women had a ______________________________ risk of diabetes than those who were just overweight. three times higher. three and a half times higher. five and a half times higher. 5. The only way to keep the risk of diabetes down is to control your weight. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

137 A Most Unusual College: No Textbooks And No Lectures

17 septiembre, 2020
Watch the video and answer   IgonnaVideo 1. Many St. John’s students declared that they decided to enter this college because there are no class lectures. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 2. The first student interviewed thinks the Iliad covers the full _________ of human experience. space. spectrum. range. 3. The second student interviewed likes the Odyssey. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 4. Students study every branch of the liberal arts, except for music. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 5. St. John’s education can make students more ___________ citizens. truthful. thoughtful. full.

136 British Art Exhibit Features Live Birds

17 septiembre, 2020
Watch the video and answer: Igonnavideo 1. Only 25 people per day are allowed in. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 2. The birds feel uncomfortable around people. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 3. There are ___ finches in the exhibiti. 4. 14. 40. 4. The exhibit was created by a French artist. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 5. Gillespie thinks that this exhibit can encourage children to think that anybody can make music. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

135 International Space Station Now Has New View of World

17 septiembre, 2020
Watch the video and answer: Igonnavideo 1. How many windows has the International Space Station’s cupola? 1. 3. 7. 2. Astronauts opened the shutters ____________ that Wednesday. before sunset. before sunrise. at midday. 3. Astronauts had to remove the windows’ protective covers during a spacewalk that took almost six hours. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 4. For Dempsey, the cupola resembles the spacecraft in Star Wars. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 5. A photo was published on Twitter from the International Space Station. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

134 US Women Eye Hockey Gold Medal in Vancouver

17 septiembre, 2020
Watch the video and answer: igonnavideo 1. There are ___ players on the US Women’s Hockey Team. 23. 22. 21. 2. The coach played at the Olympics in _____ . 1978. 1980. 1988. 3. In December USA defeated Canada 2-1. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 4. The US team is expected to be unsuccessful. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 5. Ruggerio has already played in three Olympics. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

133 Pollution Threatens Houseboat Owners’ Way of Life in Kashmir

17 septiembre, 2020
Watch the video and answer   IGONNAVIDEO 1. Tuman’s family has been working there since _____. 1980. 1889. 1880. 2. The lakes have shrunk to _______________ of their original size. less than half. half. more than half. 3. India’s government has spent ____________________________ to have the lakes cleaned. ten million dollars. tens of millions of dollars. twenty million dollars. 4. Tuman says the dredging machines have not helped with the pollution problem. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 5. Houseboats also contribute to the lake’s pollution. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

132 Study Shows US College Students Active in Promoting Sustainability

17 septiembre, 2020
Watch the video and answer igonnavideo 1. Sophia’s father raise chicken and _______. cattle. cats. turkeys. 2. What is the name of Sophia’s school? Colorado School. Colorado College. Alvarado College. 3. Sophia has visited organic farms in India. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 4. Sophia’s school didn’t offer these courses. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 5. Some students are selling solar homes they built themselves. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

131 Native American Tribe Creates Prized Baskets

17 septiembre, 2020
Watch the video and answer   igonnavideo 1. She learned to do basketry when she was about ___ years old. 2. 8. 10. 2. The baskets feature the colors of plants and grasses in the area. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 3. Rose begins by weaving grasses into a ______ base. small. round. sound. 4. She takes weeds from the yards of houses in the area. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 5. She will sell the basket she’s weaving for more than _____ . $1,000. $200. $100. 6. Her baskets are sold at a museum in the city. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 7. To Rose, basket weaving is a way to preserve the culture and traditions of the Tohono O’odham. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

130 California Teacher’s Program Helps Underprivileged Students Prepare for College

16 septiembre, 2020
Watch the video and answer igonna video   1. Mrs. Swanson works in a suburban school in __________. San Francisco. Santa Monica. San Diego. 2. Many students are immigrants. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 3. Mrs. Swanson started the program with 48 students. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 4. Test scores went up 48 percentage points higher than the rest of the district in language arts. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 5. More than ________ students are now enrolled in AVID. 300,000. 30,000. 13,000. 6. The program operates only in California. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

129 Scientists Create Glue Inspired by Mussels

15 septiembre, 2020
Niels Holten-Anderson – a post-doctoral scholar at the University of Chicago – says mussels do two things really well. They excrete a sticky _______ and they can use that natural glue to repair the anchoring bond. Niels Holten-Anderson: «And the important thing to remember is that there are no cells. There is no live or living activity taking place inside these materials. The material is basically a dead material, just like our hair. So this capacity to re-heal itself is completely automatic, and it’s not _______ on any sort of energy input from living cells.» Holten-Anderson and colleagues at the University of Chicago, and a team of international scientists have worked on how to turn what mussels do naturally into a _______ material. They zeroed in on the chemistry of what the mollusks secrete and discovered metal mixed inside their thin, hold-fast _______. Holten-Anderson says iron is a key ingredient that makes the adhesive strong and _______. Niels Holten-Anderson: «The unique thing is you can pull them apart and if you leave them be, they can find their _______ again and re-heal, and that’s where the re-healing and its original strength comes from.» Holten-Anderson and colleagues set out to _______ that in the laboratory using a synthetic polymer or a simplified version of a string of mussel protein molecules. They succeeded when they pre-mixed the polymer with metal _______ at low pH. Niels Holten-Anderson: «You instantly get an initiation of these self-healing strong gel-like, sticky materials as soon as you do this basically step-wise process of mixing things, and then increase the pH potentially _______ what actually happens in the natural case anyway.» Iron is the metal available to mussels in the environment. Holten-Anderson says scientists can expand that _______ and experiment with other metals. Niels Holten-Anderson: «We’ve shown so far that a metal such as titanium, for example, which is interesting from the bio-medical side of things with _______ materials and so forth, that we can actually use titanium atoms too to cross in these materials and those materials seem to have even stronger, or even higher strength than the iron based materials.» Holten-Anderson expects the nature-inspired material will have practical medical and _______ uses. A patent is pending on how to make the gel, which is described online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

128 Experts Divided Over Internet Changes to Language

15 septiembre, 2020
Eleanor Johnson is a professor in the English and Comparative literature department at Columbia University who attributes a growing __________ of language to the explosion of electronic communication. Eleanor Johnson: «I think that text messaging has made students believe that it’s far more acceptable than it actually is to just make screamingly _________ spelling and grammatical errors.» Johnson says that her students, over the past several years, have increasingly used a more informal English vocabulary in formal assignments. University-level research papers, she says, are now being _________ with casual phrases like «you know» and words like «guy» informal usages that were absent almost a decade ago. She attributes the change to instant and _________ communication. She’s also seen an increase in incorrect word use, with students reaching for a word that sounds correct, whose proper meaning is just _________ from what they intend to say. Eleanor Johnson: «For instance, using the word ‘preclude’ to mean ‘precede.’ Yeah, it sounds like ‘precede,’ but it means ‘prevent.’ And yet ‘preclude’ is not a particularly _________ term. It just sounds a tiny bit fancier than precede and actually means something totally different.» Johnson says this kind of inaccurate word choice is happening so often now that she devotes a section of her class to the problem. David Crystal is a British linguist and author of over 100 books, including 2001’s Language and the Internet. Crystal says the dynamic _________ of the Internet makes it difficult for comprehensive analysis of its effects to stay up-to-date. He had to revise the book in 2006 to keep up with the changing technology. But Crystal believes that the impact of the worldwide web on language remains minimal. David Crystal: «When we look at the specific effects of the Internet on language or languages. Has English become a different language as a _________ of the Internet? The answer has to be no.» Crystal says linguistic changes caused by the Internet run parallel to changes in the existing _________. What we are not seeing is an alteration, but additions to the language. Crystal also points to several studies by scholars of the Coventry University in England and University of Washington that support the same theme. David Crystal: «So the main effect of the Internet on language has been to increase the expressive _________ of language, providing the language with a new _________ of communicative dimensions that haven’t existed in the past.» Erin Jansen, founder of Netlingo, an online dictionary of Internet and text messaging terms, also says the new technology has not fundamentally changed existing language but added _________ to the vocabulary. Jansen has worked in the Internet industry since 1994 and agrees with Crystal that what we’re seeing is more ways to use language to communicate. Erin Jansen: «Basically it’s a freedom of expression.» Jansen says that while she has heard from frustrated educators about the new kinds of mistakes in spelling and grammar in student work, the expanding _________ of expression brings benefits to the classroom as well. Erin Jansen: «But I always _________, don’t get angry or upset about that, get creative. If it’s helping the student write more or communicate

127 Baseball Can Get Complicated

14 septiembre, 2020
The Chicago White Sox baseball team is managed by a jovial but _______ Venezuela native, Ozzie Guillén. A 15-year major-league player and seven-year manager, he sometimes erupts into animated and profane tirades against _______, reporters – even his own team. There is often a sly _______ in his eye as he does so, and Guillén is well-liked throughout the sport. But recently he got serious and angry and touched a _______ that sent teams around baseball scrambling to explain themselves. Guillén complained that Major League ballplayers from Asian countries get preferential treatment over those who come from Latin America. He noted that most, if not all, Asian players who speak little or no English are assigned personal interpreters, who follow them around and help them communicate with managers, coaches, _______, the media, and people outside the game, such as waiters in restaurants. Guillén said Latin players, by contrast, must _______ for themselves, picking up English from other Latino ballplayers and coaches. In game situations, the White Sox manager said, this can leave a player who has poor English skills _______ silent and not understanding key instructions. Asian players, meantime, have an interpreter to help them, right on the _______. Baseball officials explained this apparent double standard by noting that players from Japan, Taiwan, and Korea are often _______ stars who come directly to play at the highest level with no chance to learn English. But Latins, who make up 20 percent of Major League players, often start at low levels and work their way up over many years, during which they are presumably _______ English. Baseball’s hierarchy pointed out that most teams offer English classes to anyone who wants them. The tempest over Guillén’s remarks has subsided to a _______, but they opened the door to provocative discussions about the treatment of all minority baseball players and coaches.

126 Talk About a Wide River!

14 septiembre, 2020
Recently, in a story about the Okefenokee swamp that _________ the Florida-Georgia state line, we noted that it’s a true swamp, unlike the more famous Everglades that cover a _________ lot of South Florida. In fact, Everglades National Park could be called the world’s _________ river. It’s a vast, extremely slow-moving _________ of water — 180 kilometers (112 miles) wide and no more than a meter deep in most places — stretching all the way from the _________ of Miami on the Atlantic Coast across to Naples on the Gulf of Mexico. You could call the glades a River of Grass, too: _________ yellow sawgrass that can slice you open The Everglades were once a formidable frontier. When the United States was pushing Spain out of Florida in the 19th Century, its fiercest _________ was a band of Seminole Indians who harbored escaped U.S. criminals and southern slaves in the Everglades on dry patches of ground called _________. In the early 20th Century, when Miami, now a great international city, had only 1,600 residents, nobody could figure out how to _________ the Everglades or overcome the _________ of mosquitoes that brought yellow fever and attacked work crews who tried to lay railroad ties or build towns. Over the years, though, engineers solved the _________ problem, and the edges of the great River of Grass were steadily drained for housing developments, canals, and roads. Sometimes the results were _________, as vegetation dried and caught fire, and ditches _________ away fresh water. Wildlife has also been threatened as the glades _________. The National Park Service estimates that the number of _________ birds has declined from a quarter of a million in the 1930s to fewer than 20,000 today. But you’ll still see plenty of alligators. They sun themselves along the old, two-lane state road through the Everglades, which may be _________ but are still an awesome sight. There’s nothing like them, anywhere in the world.

125 Want to Go ‘Resorting’?

14 septiembre, 2020
Spring is just days away in the Northern Hemisphere. That means the people of quaint Cape May, New Jersey, may already be busy, _______ their sumptuous homes in preparation for the annual rush of beach-loving guests. This town of 4,000 people, whose numbers _______ to 40,000 in the summertime, lies on the tip of a little peninsula that sticks out into the mouth of the Delaware Bay. Sea captains on the way up the Delaware River to Philadelphia would stop at Cape May to pick up pilots who knew the bay’s treacherous _______ and currents. Many ship’s captains fell in love with the town and built homes there. Even before the American Revolution of the late _______, Cape May merchants advertised in Philadelphia newspapers, inviting people to resort in Cape May. America’s first seaside resort also became a cool summertime retreat for wealthy _______ from the American South. That’s why you see columned mansions there. And plenty of stately, English-style Victorian houses and grand old hotels, too. In fact, Cape May now _______ the single greatest concentration of late-19th Century architecture in the world! More Victorian homes, even, than you’ll find in any one place in England. Cape May is also famous for its brightly painted gingerbread _______ — gingerbread meaning fancy wooden decorations from the time when people in town had a saying: Decorate everything, including the decoration! You might wonder how such treasures survived the _______, fires, and recessions that have surely battered the area — and indeed they have. The answer is that despite appearances, Cape May is not a wealthy town. People have not had a lot of money to _______ the old homes and build new ones. So now Cape May — all of it, not just a neighborhood or two — is preserved as a historic district, the first ever designated in America.

124 US Ends 62-Year Drought in 4-Man Bobsled

14 septiembre, 2020
It seems _______ to believe that it had been 62 years since the Americans had won Olympic gold in the four-man bobsled. But this was the year many thought that _______  would come to an end. Driver Steve Holcomb, the reigning world champion, surged to the lead after the first two runs Friday, setting a Whistler Sliding Track record in the process. He gained several more _______  of a second in the third run Saturday, so with a total lead of almost half a second, Holcomb just needed to _______  a solid run on his fourth and final trip down the icy course. Holcomb: «I just got in the sled. I was _______ . I knew the lines I had to drive. I drove as best I could and came out victorious.» The 29-year-old Holcomb said it was a _______  to end the long U.S. drought in the four-man bobsled. Holcomb: «This is an amazing feeling. You kind of dream about it for years and _______  it’s happening. It’s sort of hard to put into words. I don’t know. It’s just kind of _______ .» The modest Holcomb, a stocky man who sports a _______ , said he is not the one who deserves all the credit in his black USA-1 sled dubbed «Night Train.» And it is not just teammates Justin Olsen, Steve Mesler and Curtis Tomasevicz. Holcomb: «It’s a whole team thing. The engineers have put so much _______  into this. The pushers have as well. And my coaches have done everything they can to get me here and I just had to perform and _______  the way that I do, and we did. And we showed that right now we are the best team in the world.» One of those coaches is Brian Shimer, himself a former U.S. four-man bobsled driver. Shimer: «I’m just _______ , and I can’t tell you how proud I am of Holcomb and the gang, and for Steve to pull it together and hold it together in just his second Olympic Games. You know, he kind of followed in my _______  but has passed me way up. It took me five Olympics just to get a bronze, and here he is in his second with a gold.» Taking the silver medal, 0.38 seconds back, was two-time defending champion Andre Lange of Germany. On the final run, he _______  the Canadian sled driven by Lyndon Rush by a mere 0.01 of a second. USA Winner Steve Holcomb said he is not about to _______  from bobsledding after winning the Olympic gold medal.

123 Largest US Solar Energy Plant Comes on Line in Florida

14 septiembre, 2020
Florida energy officials led President Obama through the ___________ of more than 90,000 solar panels that make up the new energy plant in central Florida. The facility in Arcadia is expected to help power 3,000 homes, at its peak, and do so without producing carbon ___________, like traditional coal-fired plants. President Obama said he welcomes the drive to open renewable energy facilities. «For the very first time, a large-scale solar power plant, the largest of its ___________ in the entire nation, will deliver electricity produced by the sun to the citizens of the Sunshine State. And I think it’s about time.» In spite of its nickname as the «sunshine state,» Florida has ___________ behind other states in solar energy production until now. State utility Florida Power and Light says its Arcadia plant will produce 25 megawatts of energy, making it the largest in the nation at least for now. The ___________ has two other solar plants nearing completion in Florida, including one that will make three times more energy than the Arcadia site. Experts say the $150 million plant is expensive compared to other technologies, and produces only a fraction of the state’s energy needs. But Jim Fenton, director of the Florida Solar Energy Center at the University of Central Florida, says costs are ___________ quickly. «The cost of solar has been dropping on average about ___________ percent a year, where the cost of traditional energies has been going up exponentially because the price of ___________ fuels is going up.» Fenton says within three years the cost of large solar plants should be the same as for coal or oil power plants. Energy leaders in California and Nevada also recognize the opportunity of solar power and are planning to build new plants in coming months. Even China’s government has commissioned a U.S. firm to build a massive facility that would produce ___________ times more solar energy than the new Florida plant. Steve Smith directs the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy, which ___________ for renewable energy uses in Florida and nearby states. He says interest in solar power is growing. «I actually believe that we are at the beginning of a ___________ in activity in investing in renewable energy. The big question is which states and which countries are going to get the manufacturing jobs for producing solar panels.» Japan, Germany and China are key producers of the photovoltaic panels used to capture sunlight and pass it onto the electrical ___________. Smith says U.S. officials should move quickly to create incentives for U.S. panel makers to open new factories in Florida and other states. «With the high unemployment levels you want more job ___________ to come into the state.» Smith says growth in the solar energy industry could be a boon for the environment and the economy at the same time.

122 One Site, Two Battles, More than Two Centuries Apart

13 septiembre, 2020
Each year thousands of Americans who visit the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, area stop to see Valley Forge in the nearby ____________ hills. At a crude encampment there during the ___________  winter of 1777-78, 2,000 colonial soldiers died of hunger, disease, and ___________ . But their commander, the future U.S. president George Washington, made a fighting force of his beaten and ___________  army. Come Spring, they began a campaign that won the colonies’ independence from Britain. Valley Forge is an important U.S. historical park, managed by the National Park Service. And just 30 kilometers away is an ___________  important site that has suffered quite a different ___________ . It’s Brandywine Battlefield, the site of the Revolutionary War’s largest and ___________  engagement — which the colonists lost decisively. That led to their ___________  ordeal at Valley Forge. The Brandywine Battlefield had been a showcase Pennsylvania historical park. But this year’s troubled economy led to a budget ___________  that brought with it terrible news for its small staff and legion of dedicated volunteers. Brandywine Battlefield Park was to be closed and locked ___________ . The move would have ___________  two historic buildings where General Washington; another future president, James Madison; and two legendary foreign fighters, the French Marquis de Lafayette and the Polish count Casimir Pulaski, had made their headquarters. But a group called Friends of Brandywine Park have come to the rescue, at least for the ___________ . They agreed to operate the park, and some of the paid staff even volunteered to work for free to keep it open. Longer-term, park supporters are ___________  that the nearby township of Chadd’s Ford, and four other townships over whose grounds the battle ___________ , will come up with enough money to keep the park going. And they’re hoping that the National Park Service will one day take on Brandywine Battlefield Park and combine the visitor experience with that of nearby Valley Forge.

121 Park in the Sky Opens in New York

12 septiembre, 2020
It’s called the «Highline.» It’s a newly renovated and elevated __________ that was once a railway line for delivering cattle and other foodstock. In 1980, the train made its last delivery, bringing frozen __________ to lower Manhattan. In a densely populated city, the Highline now provides open space for relaxation as it winds through neighborhoods once noted for __________. New Yorkers and tourists are enjoying it. [Opinions from visitors] This once __________ neighborhood is now being changed, seemingly overnight, thanks to the Highline. It’s an oasis in a sea of __________. The walkway includes more than 100 species of plants inspired by the wild landscape left after the trains stopped running. New construction is everywhere. Apartments, office towers, restaurants and even a museum have __________ alongside the promenade. Those who live closest to it are proud, but at the same time __________. «There’s real pressure being put on working class people around here to still get a place. So, you know, the Highline both honors the past and the industrial grittiness but it adds to the __________. So that part is a little tricky, but we are very glad to have it.» The first section of the Highline was inaugurated in May, after 15 years of planning and political battles. New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg, along with __________ like clothing designer Diane von Furstenberg and her husband, media mogul Barry Diller, cut the ribbon. «I’m so proud to be a part of this. I’m so proud to be a part of this neighborhood, of this city and of this country. And things can happen and __________ can happen and we should all take that away today.» The first two sections of the Highline cost $152 million. Of that, $44 million was __________ by the public. To those who visit, it seems it was well worth the wait and the money.

120 Insects Inspire New Generation of Australian Weapons

10 septiembre, 2020
Australian weapons developers have been inspired by the __________ capacity of insects to spot and zero in on food and the ability of bees to avoid colliding with each other in a __________. Australia’s Defense Science and Technology Organization has been looking at how the existing research into insects’ navigation and sight could make __________ weapons more reliable and improve their ability to hit moving __________. Through its collaboration with several electronics companies, a new system known as ‘Bioseeker’ has been developed. Project Manager Philip Henschke says the study of insects has been vital. «A variety of insects have a unique capability to find the moving target and that’s the particular holy __________ of what we’re interested in from a weapons application in defense. What we’ve actually done is looked at the mathematics of how an insect sees and we’ve taken that mathematics and from that we’ve looked at an __________ that will enable us to do what we call a bio-image generation, a map of the movement within a scene.» This information was then analyzed in special software to create a system designed to find, __________ and destroy moving targets. The Bioseeker technology is scheduled to __________ final testing, later this year. Its architects believe that, if it is eventually used in battle, it will make soldiers safer by taking them __________ away from the enemy. Researchers __________ to produce a low-cost seeker-and-guidance system that could eventually be reduced to the size of a coffee cup. Possible applications include placing the technology inside __________ used on the Australian Army’s Tiger Attack helicopters. The Australian military is relatively small, with about 50,000 personnel. However, the __________ force has a reputation for technological innovation. The government in Canberra has said that, by 2020, it hopes to bring into service a __________ of Super Hornet jet fighters and an early-warning aircraft, as well as a range of new helicopters and airborne __________ airplanes. The Australian military is involved in __________ missions in East Timor, Sudan and the Solomon Islands and with the US-led campaign in Afghanistan.

119 NASA: Discovery of Methane Gas on Mars Could Signal Microbial Life

9 septiembre, 2020
A team of ___________ with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, or NASA, announced Thursday that the presence of methane gas on Mars is a major  ___________. Astrobiologist Sushil Atreya says there are two possibilities as to why methane exists on Mars. «Either it’s  ___________, in which case it’s the reaction between water and  ___________, or it’s biology, in which case the  ___________ are producing the methane.» Methane was first detected on Mars in 2003 by scientists using Earth-based telescopes. Scientists say that one  ___________ of Martian methane contained nearly 19,000 tons of the gas. NASA’s Michael Mumma says methane is quickly destroyed in the Martian atmosphere, so the detection of plumes of methane is significant. «Mars is active. Now  ___________ or not its because of geology, or biology, or both, we don’t know.» Scientists say they have detected  ___________ variations of methane emissions over the planet’s northern hemisphere. Physicist Geronimo Villanueva of Catholic University here in Washington says the gas plumes were emitted during the northern Martian spring and summer. «One of the most important,  ___________, things about the discovery is that the regions where we see methane are regions that have a lot of  ___________ history. For example, these regions show evidence that waters once  ___________ over them, and this is very important because if the water is still available below the  ___________, some activity – geology, biology – could be using them.» Scientists have debated whether reports of methane deposits on Mars were real. But now, Geologist Lisa Pratt says scientists have the evidence needed to consider the possibility of  ___________ on the Red Planet. «It’s time, it’s  ___________ that we begin to explore Mars, looking for the possibility of a life form that’s  ___________ methane.» But Pratt says that at most, that life form could be a very thin, nearly invisible film of microbes deep  ___________. Scientists say NASA’s launch of the Mars Science Laboratory in 2011 could provide more detailed analysis on the presence of methane on the planet.

118 Scientists Say Universe Expanding

8 septiembre, 2020
The observation that the Universe is ever expanding is at ______ with the accepted notion that gravity will eventually slow the expansion of the Universe, which was believed to be created by the Big Bang some  ______ billion years ago. A team of astrophysicists at Harvard University’s Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts says it has found evidence that energy, generated by mysterious dark matter, is behind the Universe acceleration. Using the US space agency NASA’s Chandra X-ray observatory, Alexey Vikhlinin and colleagues observed  ______ tightly-packed galaxy clusters. Vikhlinin says in time, dark energy will  ______ the visible Universe. «It’s not tomorrow but it’s roughly double the age of the Universe today, and you will see very strong effects on  ______ galaxies,» he said. David Spergel is an astrophysicist at Princeton University in New Jersey. «One way of thinking about this is that even nothing – empty space –  ______ something. And because in our Universe we have a lot of nothing, it has a  ______ effect on our evolution and causes space itself to accelerate.» The research provides  ______ evidence that dark energy exists. Study co-author William Forman says the findings add another dimension to Einstein’s Theories of Relativity which  ______ scientists’ understanding of the Universe. «Einstein’s equations apply over a truly remarkable range of environments, including the universe as a whole, super massive black holes, the  ______ of time required to make our GPS (global positioning satellite) systems work. But despite all these remarkable  ______, conceptual changes to Einstein’s vision may still be needed.» The study on dark energy is published in the Astrophysical Journal.

117 Apple’s iPhone Makes Quiet Entry in India

7 septiembre, 2020
Only a _______ crowd turned up for the midnight launch of Apple’s iPhone in New Delhi Friday. It included a high school student, who said he wants to show off the _______ in school, and an entrepreneur who bought six sets for himself and his friends. Daytime saw a handful more customers like executive, Abhishek Jain, turn up at a New Delhi store to buy the iPhone. Jain is _______ impressed by the device, which combines a music and video player, cellphone and web browser. «No other phone can match it. This is the best phone available in the world. This is what I see. I am very excited, I am very, very excited.» But there was no sign of people _______ for hours, or the kind of _______ witnessed when the iPhone was launched in several European and Asian countries last month. Part of the reason is the cost – the iPhone is selling for over $_______ in India, triple its price in the United States. That is because unlike the United States, Indian mobile operators are not _______ the phone. Airtel, one of the companies which launched the iPhone, has _______ off the high price tag, saying it is targeting the «high-end achiever and youth segment.» But many young people, like Ankita Chaudhury, doubt whether they will buy the iPhone anytime soon. «I don’t know if I want to buy it or not because it’s priced _______ high.» Chief editor at technology publisher CyberMedia, Prasanto K. Roy, says the price will impact sales. «There are lots of people who have been waiting for two years for this, and they are going to put down the money. But the numbers are clearly not going to be anywhere near what we could have expected, simply, not just because of the price itself, but because of the fact that  there is spread _______ of pricing worldwide, and this is three times the U.S. price, so you can actually order it off e-Bay including customs duty, so that actually puts quite a _______ on the whole thing.» In fact, according to a recent survey, 150,000 iPhones, bought in other countries, are already being used in India. The phones can be _______ with software easily available in the gray market. But the companies selling the iPhone are hoping that people will now prefer to buy it in India to get full benefits such as the _______. The model being sold in India is the same as that launched in other markets – the 3G or third generation phone, although India has yet to launch 3G networks. India is one of the biggest markets for mobile handsets – _______ million were sold last year. Most of these are lower priced phones, but there is also a huge demand for high-end phones among the growing numbers of _______ and middle class people in the country.

116 Australian Climate Scientists Enlist Elephant Seals for Research Help

6 septiembre, 2020
Scientists have long thought that the vast areas of sea ice in Antarctica could help them unlock some of the secrets of climate change. The ice reflects _______ back into space. With global temperatures rising, there are concerns that polar ice is shrinking, and, as it does, additional energy is absorbed by the earth, causing more _______. For the first time, researchers have been able to gather crucial information from the heart of this icy _______ thanks to help from an unlikely source – _______ elephant seals. The seals were fitted with special satellite sensors that sent back data from Antarctica. The devices are the size of a mobile phone and eventually fall off when the animals _______ their fur in summer. Between 2004 and 2005, the seals each swam up to _______ kilometers a day, supplying scientists with thousands of pieces of information about the sea ice that ocean _______ and ships have been unable to provide. Steve Rintoul, from the Australian government’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) says the seals have been invaluable. «The polar regions are barometers of change for the climate of the earth as a whole. The 19 million square kilometers of sea ice that form each winter had been a _______ so far and the seals help us fill in that part of the story.» The elephant seals, which can dive to _______ of 15-hundred meters, have provided a 30-fold increase in data from parts of the Southern Ocean. The research also involved teams from the United States, Great Britain and France. The antennas placed on the animals’ heads detail shifts in sea currents and record changes in water temperature as well as _______. The data helps chart the effects of climate change under the Antarctic ice. Changes in salinity are used to calculate how much sea ice is formed during the winter months. Mark Hindell, a seal biologist at the University of Tasmania, says this unusual research method does not _______ the seals. «Animals that carry _______ are just as good at foraging, just as good at catching food as animals without them.. Longer term, they have just the same sort of survival _______ as animals that don’t carry them. So, there’s no effect on the seals and the few seals that are out there collecting this data are doing an enormous service, if you like, to _______ science and also to their own species.» Scientists have not been able to draw firm conclusions about changes from the data the seals collected, because there is nothing to compare it with. But the information will provide a _______ for future studies. Researchers now plan to use other seal species in different parts of the Arctic and Antarctic in the _______ for a greater understanding of a changing climate. The polar regions play an important role in the Earth’s climate system. Scientists have said they are changing more rapidly than any other part of the planet.

115 Scientists Solve Mystery of Brilliant Northern, Southern Lights

5 septiembre, 2020
Just like atmospheric conditions can affect weather on the ground, experts say the sun is responsible for weather in___________. They say the Sun’s atmosphere emits high energy solar winds that __________ the Earth continuously with electromagnetic energy. Nicola Fox is with the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland. «You could really think of it as us living in the atmosphere of the Sun,» Fox explained. «So, if the Sun changes, the Earth will feel its effects. So, if the Sun __________, the Earth will catch a cold.» But until now, space scientists have been unable to __________ the source of energy releases in the earth’s atmosphere that are responsible for the spectacular light show, aurora borealis, in the extreme northern and southern latitudes. The same energy releases are responsible for dangerous sub-storms that __________ ground-based __________ and communications systems. Scientists at the University of California at Los Angeles discovered the source of the space __________ using five satellites of the U.S. space agency’s THEMIS program. The researchers explain that the Sun’s and Earth’s electromagnetic fields normally __________ past one another in many different directions. But when enough energy builds between the two fields, they __________ and right themselves in a process scientists call reconnection. David Sibek is THEMIS project scientist with the U.S. space agency NASA. He says reconnection releases a huge amount of electrical __________ into the magnetosphere that surrounds the planet. «When reconnection occurs, that current is broken and it __________ to the Earth so you have like a short-circuit out in the Earth’s magnetic field,» explained Sibek. «And it’s that current that’s going to power the aurora and __________ into the Earth’s ionosphere and cause power line disruption in Canada for example by __________ transformers.» Scientists say it is important to know about sub-storms in order to take __________ to protect valuable technical __________, and possibly the lives of __________ astronauts. The discovery of the __________ behind sub-storms is reported in the journal Science.

114 Pesticides Blamed for Killing Wildlife in Kenya

4 septiembre, 2020
Several cases of deliberate __________ of animals using carbofuran pesticide have been reported in recent years in various parts of Kenya, especially in areas where the animals are increasingly competing for living space and territory with humans. But wildlife conservationists became particularly alarmed earlier this month when wildlife officials in the world-famous Masai Mara National Park discovered five dead  __________, which died after grazing on vegetation containing traces of carbofuran. The hippo  __________ also led to the discovery of four lions suffering from acute paralysis. The lions had fed on one of the dead hippos and test results later showed trace amounts of carbofuran in the lions’  __________. The former head of the government-run Kenya Wildlife Service, Richard Leakey, who now runs a local wildlife charity called, says it is not clear how carbofuran made its way into the park’s  __________. But he says nomadic people living near the Masai Mara may have used the chemical to poison predators, not knowing that killing animals with carbofuran often  __________ to secondary poisonings that have the potential to  __________ entire wildlife populations. «A small  __________ on meat will kill lion, leopard, cheetah, hyena, jackal, vulture, and it is a much bigger problem than the conservancy,» said Leakey. «A lot of the nomadic people, who are fed up with the constant harassment of their [live]stock and the predation they are suffering from, have learned to use carbofuran.» «To an extent, it is a reflection of the fact that wildlife-human conflict has grown in intensity and the Kenya wildlife authority is simply not up to giving the assistance people are looking for by removing animals through  __________. As a consequence,  __________ and pastoralists have just taken the law into their own hands and said, ‘Well, if you will not remove the lions, we will kill them,» he added. Sold in Kenya under the brand name of Furadan, carbofuran is popular with farmers not only because it is an effective pesticide, but because it is  __________ and available in many stores throughout the country. Leakey says one recent study confirmed that fishermen in Lake Victoria in western Kenya have begun using carbofuran to catch fish, raising serious questions about the health  __________ that carbofuran-contaminated food poses to people. Exposure to the chemical can cause  __________, dizziness, confusion and in high doses, respiratory paralysis and death. The European Union has already banned the sale and distribution of carbofuran and in January, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency determined that products containing carbofuran can cause adverse  __________ on humans and the environment. Conservation groups in Kenya have called for an immediate ban on the sale, distribution and the importation of the chemical. But Kenya’s Pest Control and Products Board say it is still not convinced that carbofuran  __________ a danger to humans and wildlife.

113 UN Holds Food Crisis Talks in Switzerland

3 septiembre, 2020
U.N. Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon says the _______________ price of food has developed into a global crisis. He says the U.N.-sponsored meeting in Bern must find solutions to a problem that is increasing , _______________ and _______________ in the world. The United Nations estimates about 100 million of the world’s poorest people cannot afford to buy food. Because of the _______________ costs, the World Food Program says its original _______________ for this year is not enough to feed all the hungry. It is appealing for an additional three quarters of $1 billion to meet the extra expenses. The U.N. refugee agency says millions of refugees and internally displaced people will be particularly hard hit by _______________ food prices. Spokesman, Ron Redmond, says most of these people are totally dependent on food donations from the international community. «This kind of dramatic price increases can also _______________ instability, particularly in poor countries and this is of great concern to UNHCR as well, because we are already seeing this happening in several countries,» said Redmond. «Of course, the possibility could be eventual increased displacement should it trigger _______________ conflict and instability in those countries.» The Food and Agriculture Organization warns _______________ rises in cereal prices have left 37 poor countries in an emergency situation. This has sparked food riots in many countries including Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Egypt and _______________. The meeting in Bern will also address the impact of climate change on food production and explore ways to help poor countries adapt to these changes. The growing _______________ over bio-fuels is also on the agenda. Critics argue that the cultivation of _______________ for bio-fuels is taking good land away from food production and causing prices to _______________. Some people are calling for a moratorium on the production of bio-fuels. The U.N. meeting is expected to _______________ with a plan of emergency measures to solve the _______________ global food crisis. Participants also will begin to address the longer-term problems.

112 US Naval Officers Face Grueling Curriculum

2 septiembre, 2020
  Watch the video and answer   NAVAL IGONNA VIDEO 1. Commander Tomassy says that officers will learn character and ___________ attributes. modern day. skill. leadership. 2. Laura Martindale is one of the first women ever chosen to serve ___________________. on a ship. on a plane. aboard a submarine. 3. Laura Martindale says that when going out into the Navy, you may be in charge of _______________________. 40 sailors and marines. 14 sailors and marines. 4 sailors and marines. 4. Midshipman Jaclyn Jordan will go to ______________. fight school. sailing school. flight school. 5. Midshipmen must also maintain ________________________. good physical condition. peak physical condition. their weight.

111 National Arboretum, One of Washington’s Hidden Beauties

31 agosto, 2020
Watch the video and answer IGONNA VIDEO ANSWER   1. How many hectares occupies the National Arboretum? 80. 100. 180. 2. The fish pond is a favorite spot for visitors. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 3. There’s a group of columns that were part of ________________.  the Capitol building. the Washington Memorial. Virginia sandstone. 4. The National Arboretum was established in _____. 1907. 1917. 1927. 5. Each year the Arboretum sends scientists to collect animal specimens from around the world. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

110 Video Games Are Not Only for Entertainment

30 agosto, 2020
Watch the video and answer… VIDEO GAMES IGONNA   1. Jason’s parents were concerned about his addiction to video games. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 2. Jason thinks that finding work related to video games may be difficult for him. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 3. Game technology is not used in other industries. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 4. The games developed by the U.S. Army can be downloaded free. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 5. The D.C. area has about ____ game-oriented technology firms. 100. 200. 1,000.

109 Thousands of Orchids on View at US Botanic Garden

29 agosto, 2020
Watch the video and answer… Orchid_IGONNA VIDEO 1. Clive has been taking care of the orchid collection at the U.S. Botanic Garden over the last ___ years. 48. 31. 17. 2. How many species of orchids are there at the Botanic Garden? 20,000. 8,000. 5,000. 3. Clive says orchids are prone to ______ . virus. worms. diseases. 4. There are nearly ______ plants in bloom shown at the annual exhibit. 200. 2,000. 50,000. 5. Temperatures below 50ºF initiates flower buds. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

108 Washington’s National Zoo Says Goodbye to Panda Tai Shan

28 agosto, 2020
WATCH THE VIDEO AND ANSWER IGONNA VIDEO ABOUT ZOO   1. Tai Shan’s parents were born in China. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 2. Pandas have been at the National Zoo for ____ years. 10. 14. 40. 3. China owns ___ giant pandas living in the United States. 4. 14. 40. 4. There are about ______ giant pandas left in the wild. 160. 1,600. 16,000. 5. The panda will be transported in a wooden box. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

107 Cold Weather Driving Oil Prices Higher

27 agosto, 2020
WATCH THE VIDEO AND ANSWER… OIL IGONNA   1. Severe winter weather pushed the price of oil above ____ a barrel. $18. $83. $183. 2. Demand continues to rise in China and India. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 3. A slow recovery in the US could also lower prices. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 4. Oil price record was _____ a barrel in 2008. $145. $154. $155. 5. Analysts expect oil price to reach $150 a barrel anytime soon. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

106 Colorado Museum Makes No Bones about Restoring Dinosaurs to Original Form

26 agosto, 2020
  Watch the video and answer … IGONNAVIDEO 1. Sometimes restorers use _________ to fill in for the real bones. plastic. wood. silicone. 2. The museum has an archival collection of more than ____________ specimens. 1,000,000. 10,000. 1,000. 3. Not many tourists visit the center. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 4. The ceratosaurus is the very first specimen found. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 5. The ceratosaurus used to eat meat. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

105 Author Urges Protection for American Wild Horses

25 agosto, 2020
Download the video and Answer: wildigonna 1. The name and imagery of the wild horse were even used to market a classic American car. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 2. «They were shipped back to Europe in _________,» Deanne notes. tin cans. bin cars. thin cars. 3. Today, there are just _______ wild horses and burros in the USA. 36,600. 316,000. 36,000. 4. The wild horse lived during the last Ice Age. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 5. Horses were reintroduced by the 16th century Spanish. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

104 Largest Los Angeles Hotel Goes ‘Green’

24 agosto, 2020
Download the video and Answer: LA_GREEN_HOTELS-fixed-20fps-256k-wtag   1. The Bonaventure is a 37-story tower with more than ______ guest rooms in the heart of Los Angeles. 130. 300. 1,300. 2. It is the ______ hotel in Los Angeles to get the Green Seal’s stamp of approval. best. first. last. 3. Kitchen waste is composted to make fertilizer. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 4. The green certification will be used to market the hotel to environmentally conscious customers. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 5. It cost ________ to change hotel practices and educate the staff. $20,000. $120,000. $200,000.

103 Is There a Ninth Planet in Our Solar System?

23 agosto, 2020
Scientists said they have found evidence of a giant planet far out in our solar system. In a statement, the California Institute of Technology – Caltech said this planet travels a strange «highly elongated _________ in the distant solar system.» The discovery was made by two researchers at Caltech: Konstantin Batygin and Mike Brown. They used mathematical modeling and computer _________ to find the planet. So far, there have not been any direct observations of the planet. «My _________ hit the floor,» said astronomer Mike Brown, the moment he realized there might be a ninth planet. The scientists said it would take this planet 10,000 to 20,000 years just to make one full orbit around the sun. The new planet, called «Planet Nine» has a mass about _________ times the size of Earth. If they are right, the newly found planet would be the ninth planet in our solar system. Pluto had been called the ninth planet until _________, when it was renamed a «dwarf planet.» Actual confirmation of a ninth planet would be very big news. «This would be a real ninth planet,» Brown said in the statement. «There have only been two true planets discovered since ancient times, and this would be a third. It’s a pretty substantial _________ of our solar system that’s still out there to be found, which is pretty exciting.» It is believed that the planet orbits, or travels, around the sun from a great distance. The planet Neptune’s average distance to the sun is about _________ kilometers. But «Planet Nine,» could be 20 times farther away from the sun than that. While they did not get a picture of «Planet Nine» yet, the scientists say they are using the biggest—and best — telescopes on Earth to try to find «Planet Nine.» They are also working on _________ their computer simulations. They want to find out more about «Planet Nine’s» orbit, and its impact on the _________ part of our solar system. Brown and Batygin reported their findings in the Astronomical Journal. They say that this new planet is so large that there should be no doubt that it is a _________ planet, once they confirm it. Robert Massey is with the Royal Astronomical Society in London. He told AFP that planets have been predicted before, and then were not _________. But, he said the work of these researchers is definitely worth following up. «It would be a really exciting thing to find. At the moment it’s simply a prediction.» I’m Anne Ball.

102 Eat Nuts to Stay Healthy

22 agosto, 2020
1. How many nuts do you need to eat to get health benefits? A lot of nuts every day. A big amount of nuts, walnuts, peanuts and chestnuts. You do not need to eat many nuts. 2. Eating nuts protects specially the health of ______. men. women. both men and women. 3. How many grams of nuts per day is enough to get the full health benefits? About 5. About 10. About 20. 4. Why is peanut butter not recommended? Because it contains added oils and sugars. Because it is more expensive. Because it is made from roasted nuts. 5. Nuts are most healthy if you eat them ______. raw. roasted in oil. dry-roasted. 6. Which is the nut with the least fat and fewest calories? Peanut. Walnut. Chestnut. 7. Walnuts are loaded with ______. antioxidants. vitamins. calories.

101 Student Launches Hospital for iPhones

21 agosto, 2020
The iPhone has become one of the most popular mobile phones in the United States. An 18-year-old student in California has used his ______________ of the device to create his own business. And he has gained national recognition for his work. Vincent Quigg is the chief executive officer of TechWorld. His company is kind of like a hospital for iPhones. VINCENT QUIGG: «I’m 18 years old. I’m a college student. And I’m the CEO and founder of TechWorld, where we ______________ in customizing and repairing iPhones.» Vincent Quigg launched TechWorld while in high school. VINCENT QUIGG: «My mom became single a couple of years ago and I had to ______________. And in order to keep my lifestyle, I had to find different ways to stay financially ______________ of the game [to] keep my phone, keep a car, transportation and all that stuff. So I had to find ways to be ______________.» An organization called the Network for Teaching Entrepreneurship, or NFTE, helped the young man get started. Both he and his mother, Carla Quigg, admit that he had a hard time developing a business plan. CARLA QUIGG: «He ______________ the class, which I was very disappointed.» VINCENT QUIGG: «It was extremely hard for myself to find a business to start and run with it. But once I had that ‘aha moment’ or what I knew I wanted to go with, it was really easy and extremely fun.» At the time, Vincent worked for the electronics store BestBuy. He says people always came into the store with ______________ electronic devices. He decided that repairing those devices was what he wanted to do. He not only re-registered for the NFTE class, but he also won the organization’s national competition for best young ______________. Estelle Reyes is executive director for NFTE in Los Angeles. ESTELLE REYES: «He has an incredible ______________ for presenting himself and his dreams in a very compelling way that engages everyone to rally around him.» His business has grown through ______________. Vincent says he now fixes up to 10 phones per week. He earns about $1,500 each month in sales. Brisa Munoz is one of his satisfied customers. BRISA MUNOZ: «I actually looked him up on the Internet because I had heard so much about this kid, how he won entrepreneur of the year. So I looked him up, and I was like, whoo, I want him to fix my phone.'» TechWorld has two other employees. Kacee Wheeler is one of them. KACEE WHEELER: «He’s such an amazing kid, and you always see his ______________ turning with ideas every day. And it’s really inspiring for him to be so young and pushing and have the drive. It’s amazing to me.» Kacee Wheeler works on the technical ______________ of the business. Vincent Quigg now deals with finances and planning. He says he wants to continue to grow his business. His biggest ______________, he says, has always been to work for himself.

100 New Rules Aim to Improve US Food Safety

20 agosto, 2020
Each year, bad food ___________ about one in six Americans. Proposed new rules aim to improve food safety. Officials say the changes could prevent more than ___________ million cases of food-related illnesses each year. The new rules were proposed this month, exactly two years after President Obama signed the Food Safety Modernization Act. The rules are the first step in putting the law into ___________, making the biggest changes in food safety since the 1930s. The law makes the Food and Drug Administration responsible ___________ preventing foodborne illnesses. Experts say this is a change from the role that the FDA has played in the past in reacting to disease outbreaks. Congress passed the law after a series of outbreaks linked to bagged ___________, peanut butter and other foods. Margaret Hamburg is commissioner of the FDA. MARGARET HAMBURG: «They occurred because of problems that would have been addressed by these kinds of approaches. So I think, you know, we’re very ___________ that we will begin to see real change.» The agency is proposing to require food manufacturers to show that they have identified where contamination is most ___________ to happen. Manufacturers would also have to show that they have taken steps to prevent it. The proposed rules also deal with safety in growing and ___________ fruits and vegetables. The Congressional Budget Office estimates that establishing all of the provisions of the law will cost the government $1.4 billion. The Grocery Manufacturers of America, an industry group, has not released an estimate of what it will cost ___________. But FDA Deputy Commissioner Michael Taylor says the new rules are worth the price. MICHAEL TAYLOR: «Even if you just look at estimated reductions in illness, but if you also take into ___________ avoiding disruption of the food supply and the loss of confidence in those commodities by consumers, so I think we’ll see that the benefits substantially ___________ the costs of implementation.» Caroline Smith-DeWaal is director for food safety at the Center for Science in the Public Interest. She says the rules should have been released a year ago. CAROLINE SMITH-DEWAAL: «We’re really happy that the new rules have come out. They’re a little ___________.» And she notes that they are not finished. CAROLINE SMITH-DEWAAL: «The bigger question is, where are the rules on imports that haven’t been released yet?» The FDA says about ___________ percent of food eaten by Americans is imported, and that share is growing. Rules have not been released yet to require imported foods to ___________ the same standards as food produced in the United States. But the agency says they are coming soon. The rules released this month will not go into effect for more than a year. Final versions will be announced after the agency considers public comments. And experts point out that Congress will need to approve money to ___________ the new rules.

99 Irrigation Pioneer Wins World Food Prize

19 agosto, 2020
A researcher who helped make crops grow in ___________ land areas received the World Food Prize last week. Daniel Hillel was recognized for his work in developing what is called «micro-irrigation» or ___________ irrigation.» It has made farming possible in places where there is little rainfall or water. Daniel Hillel’s farm near his home in Israel shows his ideas at work. DANIEL HILLEL: «Each tree row is fed by these plastic ___________ that drip water at the base of the tree.» Watering plants drop by drop has changed agriculture by reducing the ___________ of water needed to grow crops. Jan Hopmans is a ___________ at the University of California at Davis. He studies water-related issues in society. He says farmers now depend on drip irrigation in many areas, including ___________ in Spain, onion fields in Africa, and even farms in the United States. JAN HOPMANS: «We in California grow about ___________ percent of the fruits and vegetables of the continental United States. And the reason that is possible is because of, indeed, these drip and micro-irrigation techniques.» The World Food Prize Foundation says Daniel Hillel was born in California at the beginning of the Great Depression. After his father died, his mother moved the family to Palestine, where her parents lived. The area eventually became part of the state of Israel. Daniel Hillel got his ___________ in dryland farming as a settler in Israel’s Negev Desert in the nineteen fifties. DANIEL HILLEL: «The issue was efficient use of water. Because land is available. It’s ___________. Water is limited.» ___________ farmers were not able to push water through irrigation canals to their crops, the way farmers have since ancient times. So Mr. Hillel and others gave plants just what they needed, just where they needed it. DANIEL HILLEL: «The idea was to apply the water little by little, the way you ___________ a baby.» The method worked so well that soon Mr. Hillel was traveling the world, showing others how to do it. Experts say drip irrigation is an idea ___________ importance is growing, as climate change and rising population stretch water supplies in many parts of the world. DANIEL HILLEL: «This is where water use, water availability, water-use efficiency and climate change and crop production all ___________. And this has been really the essence of my career.»

98 Thinking Outside the Five-Paragraph Essay

17 agosto, 2020
Millions of students have been taught a formula that has nothing to do with chemistry. The formula is for writing a five-paragraph essay. First, write an introductory paragraph to state the ____________. Then, add three paragraphs of ____________. Finally, write a ____________. Linda Bergmann is director of the Writing Lab at Purdue University in Indiana. Her job is to help students, including international students, ____________ their writing. Professor Bergmann has worked with many students who learned this traditional five-paragraph formula. LINDA BERGMANN: «It is kind of like, ‘A is true because one, two, three.’ The second paragraph is the first reason, next paragraph the second reason. The next paragraph is the final reason, and then the last paragraph is, ‘So we can see that this is true.'» Professor Bergmann says international students sometimes have difficulty with this formula if they learned a different writing structure. But just knowing how to write a five-paragraph essay is not going to be enough for a college student who has to write a longer ____________. As Professor Bergmann points out, the formula is too simple to deal with subjects that require deeper ____________ and investigation. LINDA BERGMANN: «Essentially, it is way too simplistic to handle more intellectually sophisticated topics which involve actual ____________.» Karen Gocsik is executive director of courses in the Institute for Writing and Rhetoric at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. The institute has an extensive library of online writing materials on its website. So what are the qualities that ____________ good writing? Ms. Gocsik says there are no simple answers — except maybe for one. That is, there is no formula that students can follow to guarantee a well-written paper. KAREN GOCSIK: «What we try to teach students to do in college is to listen to their ideas, and that the idea should be able to tell you what ____________ it needs to take.» She says moving from secondary-school writing to college-level writing can be difficult, but students should not be afraid. KAREN GOCSIK: «The thinking that you are doing, and the purpose that you have and the ____________ you are writing to — all of these things you will mix up together and you will come up with, we hope, an excellent college paper.» In some cultures, students organize their paragraphs to build toward the main idea at the end of the paper. American college students are usually expected to state their ____________ at the beginning. And, while students in some cultures use lots of descriptive words, American professors generally want shorter sentences.

97 Debating the Best Way to Learn a Language

16 agosto, 2020
1. According to the article, there are two methods of studying a foreign language. What happens in the ‘explicit method’?  Students do not study grammar rules. Students talk with native speakers. Students are taught a lot of information about grammar rules. 2. What happens in the ‘implicit method’?  Students are taught a lot of information about grammar rules. Students talk to native speakers and absorb the language that surrounds them. Students are in a traditional classroom. 3. The professor says that combining the two methods is the best way to learn.  True. False. It’s not said on the text. 4. The adults in the experiment learned an invented language of  13 words. 30 words. 33 words. 5. The immersion group was able to use grammar as if they were native speakers.  True. False. It’s not said on the text.

96 Why ‘Precision Agriculture’ Is a Good Investment

15 agosto, 2020
Precision agriculture is a way of thinking about how to improve production and get more from existing resources. It often ____________ the use of technology. An example found mostly in wealthier countries is a computer-guided tractor. The computer does most of the driving. It uses signals from satellites in the Global Positioning System. GPS technology helps the tractor cut rows in straight lines and put the right amount of ____________  in the right place. (SOUND) Jimmy Messick is a farmer in northern ____________ , not far from Washington. He says the GPS guidance system makes it easy to come back later and plant the seed in his fields of maize, or corn. JIMMY MESSICK: «Because the tractor that’s pulling the planter also has the same auto-guidance system in it as the tractor that applied the fertilizer and did this ____________ , it will come back and put the seed right on top of these marks.» Because of the GPS guidance, Mr. Messick now pays ____________  what he once did for fertilizer. Bruce Erickson is an agronomist at Purdue University in Indiana. He says saving even a little bit of seed, pesticide or fertilizer «computes directly to cost savings and less environmental ____________ .» Raj Khosla is an agronomist at Colorado State University. He says farmers in the developing world can use precision agriculture even without high-tech tractors. RAJ KHOSLA: «We do not necessarily have to have complex, large ____________  to practice what could be done as [simply] as using bottle caps.» The idea is to use a bottle cap to pour a measured amount of fertilizer right next to each plant. It takes more work than simply throwing ____________  of fertilizer across a field. But Mr. Khosla says researchers taught this bottle cap method to farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. They discovered that it was ____________  the extra effort if they could only afford a small amount of fertilizer. RAJ KHOSLA: «There was a huge difference: more than double, in terms of productivity.» Of course, new technology is not always so cheap. But Mr. Khosla says farmers could form a cooperative or combine their resources to pay for new equipment. He and other researchers worked with a farmer in India to precision-level his irrigated ____________  fields. That kept the fields from developing wet and dry areas that reduced productivity. The farmer also added better fertilizers and ____________  control. As a result, he was able to grow almost three times as much wheat on the same amount of land. Mr. Khosla says with the extra money the farmer made, and a small ____________ , he bought his own precision leveler. And now, for a fee, he offers that as a service to his neighbors and other farmers.

95 Why Getting Dirty Can Be Healthy for Children

14 agosto, 2020
A new study suggests that early exposure to germs __________ the immune system. That means letting children get a little dirty might be good for their health later in life. The study involved laboratory mice. It found that adult mice raised in a germ-free environment were more likely to develop __________, asthma and other autoimmune disorders. There are more than eighty disorders where cells that normally defend the body instead attack tissues and __________. They include rheumatoid arthritis, which attacks the joints; Crohn’s disease, an inflammatory bowel condition; and juvenile diabetes. Hay fever, a common allergy, is also an autoimmune __________. Richard Blumberg is a professor at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts. He says in nineteen eighty-nine, medical researchers sought to explain these diseases with what they called the «hygiene hypothesis.» They proposed that the increasing use of __________ soaps and other products, especially early in life, could weaken immune systems. RICHARD BLUMBERG: «The hypothesis has stated or suggested that early-life exposure to __________ is a very important determinant of later life sensitivity to allergic and so-called autoimmune diseases, such as __________ fever, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease and others.» Now, Dr. Blumberg and a team have what they say is the first biological evidence to link early exposure to germs to stronger adult immune systems. They say this exposure could __________ the development of some autoimmune diseases. In the adult germ-free mice, they found that inflammation in the lungs and colon was caused by so-called killer T cells. These normally fight __________. But they became overactive and targeted healthy tissue — an autoimmune condition seen in asthma and a disease called ulcerative colitis. Dr. Blumberg says the mice raised in a normal environment did not have the same __________. He says their immune systems had been «educated» by early exposure to germs. RICHARD BLUMBERG: «What was really most remarkable to us was the fact that once the education event provided by the microbes occurred in early life, it was __________ and lasted throughout the life of the animal.» Rates of autoimmune disorders are rising worldwide, but mostly in __________, industrialized countries. RICHARD BLUMBERG: «I think one obvious question, for example, that’s raised by these studies is the early life use of antibiotics and whether we need to be more careful in their __________.» Rob Dunn is a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at North Carolina State University in Raleigh. He says the new study does not mean people should stop washing. ROB DUNN: «Wash your hands, but don’t do it with antimicrobial soap. Let your kids play in a reasonable amount of __________ and get outside and get exposed to a diversity of things.» The study appears in the journal Science.

94 Facial Recognition Systems Bring Privacy Concerns

13 agosto, 2020
Today we take another look at facial recognition systems. These can __________ friends in Facebook photos or help police identify suspects in the recent __________ in Britain. Kurt Roemer is chief security strategist for Citrix Systems in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. He says technology makes it easier than __________ for governments to identify people. KURT ROEMER: «Governments can go through and identify, profile and target people, basically in any order. And it is very much a __________ line between effective law enforcement and privacy.” Kristene Unsworth researches information policy at Drexel College in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She says she is concerned that governments and police are increasingly using facial recognition software without clearly defined __________. KRISTENE UNSWORTH: “There is so much __________ around this information that we don’t really know how these kind of images or other sorts of personal data points are being used, how long the information is being __________. All of those kinds of things. So I guess for me it is an issue of transparency and __________.” Questions like these are part of a larger debate about privacy and free speech. After the __________, British Prime Minister David Cameron raised the possibility of interfering with social networks. He said the question was whether it would be right to stop people from communicating «when we know they are __________ violence, disorder and criminality.» China’s official news agency Xinhua says the British government has «recognized that a balance needs to be __________ between freedom and the monitoring of social media tools.» Xinhua added, «We may wonder why western leaders, on the one hand, tend to indiscriminately __________ other nations of monitoring, but on the other take for granted their steps to monitor and control the Internet.» Europe has some of the world’s strongest policies on privacy rights. But Kurt Roemer says, like other western governments, they have not clearly defined their __________ on new technologies. KURT ROEMER: “China calling that out really shows that we have some issues to__________ here from a policy perspective, in addition to technology.” :08 One debate involves an action in San Francisco on August eleventh by the Bay Area Rapid Transit system. BART disabled __________ service in some of its underground stations for three hours. It says protesters were planning to use mobile devices to organize activities to __________ train service. BART has faced protests over what activists say is police abuse by transit officers. BART says it acted to protect public safety. The American Civil Liberties Union of Northern California says the decision was in effect an __________ by a government agency «to silence its critics.» The Federal Communications Commission says it is __________ information about BART’s actions.

93 Teaching Children How to Think Internationally

12 agosto, 2020
1. The International Primary Curriculum is taught in 58 schools. True. False. It’s not said. 2. Skelton says that this curriculum helps develop «international mindedness» starting from the age of four. five. six. 3. The children just have to do the same worksheet type of format every single time. True. False. It’s not said. 4. What did the British School in Boston do? They held a fair for students and parents. The children dressed up. The kids made links with schools in other countries. 5. Kate Foy of the British School in Washington, says the teacher’s role is  to enable students to discover for themselves. to engage children in the learning process. to help parents educate their children.

92 Future Payments for Retirees Are Big Issue Now for US States

11 agosto, 2020
State and local governments across the United States are facing big ___________ deficits. Many of these shortfalls include promises of future retirement payments for public employees. Several states have had to ___________ money for pension plans that have fallen below required funding levels. Pay and benefits for public workers have been a target as state and local governments try to cut spending. At the same time, there are efforts in several states to reduce the negotiating ___________ of public employees. In many cases, public employee unions have agreed to accept lower pay. But they oppose efforts to limit collective bargaining. An effort by Republicans to do that in Wisconsin has led protesters to ___________ the state capitol building. Almost every state requires a balanced budget. Yet worries that state and local governments might not be able to ___________ their debts are now adding to the costs of borrowing. Illinois had to offer a high return of nearly six percent on ___________ to be repaid by twenty nineteen. Experts say, on average, public employees are paid less but have better benefits than workers with similar ___________ in private jobs. However, they say these differences in labor costs are a lot less than some people think. Still, traditional pension plans pay a ___________ amount for as long as a retiree lives. States like Georgia, Michigan, Colorado and Ohio are considering a change for future employees. They might offer retirement plans similar to what are called 401(k) plans. These are a common form of plan offered by private employers. Employers and workers ___________ put money into the plan. Workers can invest the money in areas like stocks or bonds. Their retirement savings are defined by the return on their investments in the plan. Federal workers already have a savings plan similar to a 401(k). John McGlennon heads the Government Department at the College of William & Mary in Virginia. He says the economic crisis of two thousand eight continues to ___________ state and local tax collections. Also, many pension funds have less money because their investments have yet to fully recover from the ___________. But Professor McGlennon says things could change. JOHN McGLENNON: «In terms of the future, states are not necessarily going to be in a ___________ condition in the next couple of years. But they do tend to recover much more rapidly than we tend to anticipate.»

91 For Lots of People, Getting Older Means Getting Happier

10 agosto, 2020
Old age may not sound exciting. But recent findings offer good news for older people and for people __________ about getting older. Researchers found that people become happier and experience less worry after they __________ the age of fifty. In fact, they say by the age of eighty-five, people are happier with their life than they were when they were eighteen years old. The findings came from a __________ of more than three hundred forty thousand adults in the United States. The Gallup Organization questioned them by telephone in two thousand eight. At that time, the people were between the ages of eighteen and eighty-five. The researchers asked questions about __________ like happiness, sadness and worry. They also asked about mental or emotional stress. Arthur Stone in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science at Stony Brook University in New York led the study. His team found that levels of stress were __________ among adults between the ages of twenty-two and twenty-five. The findings showed that stress levels dropped __________ after people reached their fifties. Happiness was highest among the youngest adults and those in their early seventies. The people __________ likely to report feeling negative emotions were those in their seventies and eighties. The study also showed that men and women have similar emotional __________ as they grow older. However, women at all ages reported more sadness, stress and worry than men. The findings appeared in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Researchers say they do not know why happiness increases as people get older. One theory is that, as people grow older, they grow more __________ for what they have and have better control of their emotions. They also spend less time thinking about bad experiences. Professor Stone says the emotional patterns could be __________ to changes in how people see the world, or maybe even changes in brain __________. The researchers also considered possible influences like having young children, being unemployed or being single. But they found that influences like these did not affect the levels of happiness and well-being related to age.

90 A Victory for Computers as Watson Wins ‘Jeopardy!’

9 agosto, 2020
An IBM supercomputer named Watson has won the latest battle of man versus machine. Watson won the first ever “Jeopardy!” quiz show competition __________ a computer as a player. The show was broadcast on American television February sixteenth. The supercomputer __________ former “Jeopardy!” champions Ken Jennings and Brad Rutter during the three-day competition. The two men had been the show’s most __________ players until then. The IBM computer proved to be more knowledgeable in every category, including the arts, popular culture and science. The human contestants spoke about their __________ after the show. SOUND: «I think that we both got a taste of what it might have been like to play against us.» Roger Norton is __________ of the School of Computer Science and Mathematics at Marist College in Poughkeepsie, New York. The school held a Watson watch party on the final day of the “Jeopardy!” competition. They compared it to a Super Bowl for the information technology industry. Roger Norton says everyone was amazed by Watson’s performance. ROGER NORTON: “It was very impressive in a number of ways. One is its ability to understand natural language.” In «Jeopardy!” players are given information in the form of an answer. They must give an answer in the form of a question. Roger Norton says the very __________ of the game makes Watson’s performance even more extraordinary. ROGER NORTON: “The __________ that’s in those answers is very, very difficult for humans to understand, never mind a computer to understand. And then to be able to take that, try to understand it, then go off and search its vast amount of data that it has and do the appropriate analytics and come up with not only an answer but also a __________ level associated with that answer – very, very impressive.” Watson was given the answer clues by electronic texts. It then searched through some fifteen trillion bytes of information stored in its database. That is equal to about two hundred million pages of text. The machine is able to perform up to eighty trillion operations per second. And its ability to understand language is more advanced than any other computer ever __________. This opens the door to a whole new world of computer applications. From business and investment, to medicine and healthcare, the possibilities are __________. Watson is now going to medical school. It is part of an agreement among IBM, Columbia University Medical Center in New York City and the University of Maryland’s School of Medicine. The researchers will help IBM identify the best way that Watson can be used to help the healthcare industry.

89 2000 Years of Computing History at a Museum in California

8 agosto, 2020
Silicon Valley in Northern California is home to many of the world’s largest technology companies. These include Apple, Google, Oracle, Intel, Cisco Systems and Hewlett-Packard. The valley is also home to the Computer History Museum in Mountain View. It reopened last month after nineteen million dollars ____________ of improvements. The project took nearly two years. One of the additions is a permanent exhibit called «Revolution: The First 2000 Years of Computing.» Alex Bochannek is a ____________ at the museum. Mr. Bochannek says the new exhibit tells the story of more than one thousand historical objects. ALEX BOCHANNEK: «Some of the oldest items are actually not computers. They are devices that helped people calculate. And the first object people see walking into the exhibit is an abacus from the eighteen hundreds. Because the abacus is a daily-use device made from ____________, few of them have survived.” Mr. Bochannek says people have the chance to ____________ some of the objects in the exhibit. He says one of the more popular items is a portable computer from nineteen eighty-one. ALEX BOCHANNEK: “We think of portable computers today as laptops. But the Osborne One was about the size of a ____________ machine and weighed twenty-four pounds. So, just being able to pick one of those up will help our visitors understand how difficult portability was about thirty years ago.” Visitors to the Computer History Museum can also see parts of one of the earliest ____________ electronic computing devices. The ENIAC or Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer was designed during World War Two. There are also pieces from the guidance computer that was used during the Apollo space missions. Mr. Bochannek says the «Revolution» exhibit is about more than the history of modern computing. He says it tells a much larger story about how these ____________ have affected society and culture, especially in recent years. ALEX BOCHANNEK: «The revolution to most people is that computers today are ____________. They’re everywhere. If you are crossing at a traffic light, there probably is a computer controlling that traffic light. It’s not just the laptop or your smartphone that has a computer in it, but they surround us, and in some cases are even inside us. Like the cardiac ____________, one of which we show on the exhibition as well.» The Computer History Museum plans to ____________ an online version of the exhibit in March. The museum has one hundred thousand items in its complete collection. Only two percent of them are currently on display. But officials say seventy-five percent of the items will be viewable online.

88 Fish Farms May Soon Supply More Than Half the World’s Catch

7 agosto, 2020
Traditional fisheries may no longer be the world’s most important __________ of fish. A new United Nations report shows that fish farming or aquaculture may soon lead fish production. The Food and Agriculture Organization says aquaculture is growing by a rate of __________ percent a year. Aquaculture now produces forty-six percent of the world’s supply of fish. That represents a forty-three percent increase from two thousand six. The report also said aquaculture earned more money in two thousand eight than traditional fisheries. The FAO headquarters in Rome published the document, «State of the World’s Fisheries and Aquaculture.» In aquaculture, fish are raised in __________ or small bodies of water called ponds. They also are raised in __________ or nets in oceans, lakes and rivers. The report says increased aquaculture has helped people around the world eat record amounts of fish. The FAO says each person ate an average of almost seventeen kilograms of fish last year. But the FAO says the current yearly wild-fish harvest of ninety million tons shows no improvement. Decreasing numbers of fish and stronger catch limits have reduced the possibilities for catching wild fish. The FAO report says about thirty-two percent of world supplies are overfished, depleted or recovering. It said these supplies of fish need to be urgently rebuilt. Some scientists have criticized aquaculture. They say the nets and cages permit fish diseases and pests to __________. Some aquaculture critics doubt that aquaculture can keep growing at the current rate. But Wally Stevens of the trade group Global Aquaculture Alliance says the industry must continue developing to __________ growing populations. Mr. Stevens says a one hundred percent increase in fish farming over ten years is necessary to keep providing for people at the current level. He notes that aquaculture creates jobs and __________, especially for people in coastal areas of China. The FAO reports that China remains the world’s largest fish-producing nation. China produces more than sixty percent of the world’s farmed fish.

87 Testing New Ways to Recognize What Makes a Good Teacher

6 agosto, 2020
In recent years, Bill Gates has given financial support to ___________ American education. Late last year, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching project. The project tests new ways to recognize what makes a good teacher. Its ___________ is to help educators and policymakers identify and support good teaching. The study is being carried out in public school systems in seven American cities. Thousands of teachers ___________ to take part. They agreed to have their classes recorded on video, but only for observation by expert researchers. Last spring, the project collected digital videos of thirteen thousand lessons in the classrooms ___________ by the teachers. They were in grades four through nine. Researchers also collected information from students. They asked students to report their opinions of each teacher’s classroom. Students were also tested in mathematics, English and ___________. Officials recently released early results of the project study. The report says teachers’ past success in ___________ student scores on state tests is one of the strongest signs of their ability to do so again. This is known as a teacher’s “value-added.” The teachers with the highest value-added scores on state tests also help students understand math or show reading ___________. The results also say students know effective teaching when they experience it. The students gave comments on ___________ or not their teachers cared about them. They also gave opinions on how much teachers controlled or managed student ___________ in the classroom. The report found that classrooms where students reported positive experiences were more likely to show greater learning ___________. Another finding shows that combining different sources of information helps administrators provide better comments and suggestions to teachers. In many cases, administrators had been ___________ their comments on student test scores only. The Measures of Effective Teaching project continues through twenty twelve when final results will be released. Researchers plan to test a new measure that examines what a teacher knows about how to teach a subject. Experts say these findings could also help create better ___________ and development for teachers.

86 A Traditional Thanksgiving Meal, With Modern Shortcuts

5 agosto, 2020
Thanksgiving Day is America’s version of a _________ festival. The holiday is celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November. This Thursday, millions of Americans will join family and friends to give thanks and eat a meal with a history that is _________ old. Early European settlers in North America _________ other ceremonies where they gave thanks. But what Americans often consider the first Thanksgiving took place in Plymouth Colony. Today we call it Massachusetts. Those settlers are known as the Pilgrims. They held a three-day celebration in the _________ of sixteen twenty-one. They celebrated the harvest with members of a local Indian tribe. The best known food that Americans traditionally eat on Thanksgiving is turkey. The nation’s turkey producers are expected to _________ two hundred forty-two million birds this year. The government says that is two percent fewer than last year. Last year’s turkey production had a value of about three and a half billion dollars. Thanksgiving turkeys are traditionally served with a bread mixture that some Americans call stuffing. Others call it _________. Side dishes include cranberries, sweet potatoes and green _________ or other vegetables. The meal traditionally ends with a dessert of pumpkin pie or pecan pie. Some Thanksgiving foods have changed over time. For example, most turkeys these days are _________ with larger breasts to provide more white meat. Corn — known in much of the world as maize — has also changed. It tastes much sweeter than the starchier corn of the past. The way Americans prepare for Thanksgiving has also changed. Economist John Anderson of the American Farm Bureau Federation says people look for ways to save time, though not everyone does. JOHN ANDERSON: «There are a lot of us who have grandmothers who would not even think of using a store-bought pie _________. And that is kind of the least of the shortcuts that we use.» He says shortcuts like buying prepared foods for the holiday are part of a bigger _________ in America. JOHN ANDERSON: «If you think about our food in general, not just Thanksgiving dinner, but food products in general, there has been a tremendous move over the last twenty or thirty years toward more _________ products.» Some people might not have the time or the desire to prepare a big meal, or the space for a lot of guests. Whatever the reason, John Anderson notes that more people go to a restaurant for Thanksgiving dinner than in the past. Charity groups and religious organizations will also be _________ this Thursday, serving Thanksgiving meals to the needy. The weak economy has increased the number of Americans receiving government assistance to buy food.

85 Unwrapping the Genetic Secrets of a Chocolate Bar

4 agosto, 2020
Cacao or cocoa trees grow in hot, rainy areas of Africa, Asia and Central and South America. Their beans are used to make cocoa _________________, cocoa butter and of course chocolate. There are five to six million growers, maybe more. Many are poor family farmers with only a few _______________. West Africa produces more than half of all cocoa beans. Ivory Coast leads the world in production, followed by its _______________ Ghana. The trees are usually in their _______________ year when they start to grow the pods that contain the beans. The trees produce the most pods when they are ten, but they are still productive long after that. Workers use large knives to cut the lower pods and long _______________ to remove pods from high on the tree. Later they break open the pods to remove the beans. A half-gram of chocolate requires about four hundred beans. The World Cocoa Foundation says an average pod contains twenty to fifty beans. And experts say growers can lose perhaps one _______________ of their harvest to diseases and insects. But now scientists have genetic maps of two kinds of cocoa trees. These genomes are mostly complete and could _______________ scientists to new ways to increase production and prevent disease. Mapping genes is the first step to understanding an organism. Next comes learning the job of each gene. The American food company Mars took the lead in paying for _______________ the genes of the Forastero cocoa tree. The Forastero provides eighty to ninety percent of the world’s cocoa beans. Mars depends on those beans for its M&Ms and other chocolate _______________. The company’s research partners included several universities and the United States Department of Agriculture. The average West African cocoa farmer produces about four hundred kilos of beans per hectare. But Howard-Yana Shapiro, head of plant science and external research at Mars, thinks that science could greatly _______________ the yield. HOWARD-YANA SHAPIRO: «There’s a yield potential of maybe four thousand kilos, ten _______________ what the average is in West Africa.» A competitor of Mars, Hershey’s, supported the gene _______________ of the Criollo, a far less common cacao tree. Cirad, a French government research center, led scientists from six countries in creating that genome. We’ll talk more about the cocoa industry next week, when we look at efforts to help child _______________ in Ivory Coast and Ghana.

84 Turning Images Into Sensations to Assist the Blind

3 agosto, 2020
Years ago, scientists began to learn that certain parts of the brain had certain __________. For example, one part was responsible for breathing; another dealt with the sense of smell. Scientists thought our brains could not change. But then they discovered that the brain could sometimes __________ itself when conditions required. Josef Rauschecker is a professor of physiology and biophysics at Georgetown University in Washington. He wondered if this ability to change could explain the idea that other senses in blind people improve to balance their __________ of vision. JOSEF RAUSCHECKER: «The stories about [the] disproportionate number of blind musicians, for example. Just think of Ray Charles, Stevie Wonder, so many. Andrea Bocelli, if you prefer __________ music.» The visual cortex is the part of the brain that processes sight. But earlier research by Professor Rauschecker and other scientists found that it can also do other jobs. The research showed that the brains of blind people can use the visual cortex to __________ sound and touch. But the visual cortex is divided into separate parts, or modules. Each module normally performs different jobs related to vision. JOSEF RAUSCHECKER: «Now the question is: Do blind people have that same or similar __________ organization, that these modules actually stay put and just get rededicated to touch and hearing? And the answer is yes.» Professor Rauschecker and researchers from Finland and Belgium found this answer using an fMRI scanner. That means functional magnetic resonance __________. The machine recorded brain activity as twelve blind people and twelve sighted people performed tasks involving sound and touch. For example, they would try to decide which direction sounds were coming from, or which finger was feeling __________ vibrations. Professor Rauschecker says large parts of the visual cortex became active during the sound and touch tests, but only in the blind people. He says this study and earlier research has led to an experimental device designed to help the blind. It can process images taken by a __________ into sensations that could be used by a blind person wearing it. JOSEF RAUSCHECKER: «So what we’re hoping to do is build this device that would transform basically visual information into auditory information and then __________ this amazing reservoir of the blind brain to process sounds and tactile information.» The study is in the journal Neuron.

83 Imported Foods Raise Obesity, Health Issues for Pacific Islanders

2 agosto, 2020
The World Health Organization says obesity rates are rising in Pacific island countries. So, too, are health problems linked to being overweight. The WHO says a major reason for the _____________ obesity rates is an increase in imported foods. It says many Pacific islanders have replaced their traditional diets of vegetables and fruits with imported processed foods. Dr. Temu Waqanivalu is with the World Health Organization’s South Pacific office in Suva, Fiji. He says many of the imported products _____________ nutritional value. But they are widely available, he says, and often cost less than healthier foods. TEMU WAQANIVALU: «In some of the places, you’d be amazed to see how a bottle of Coke is cheaper than a bottle of _____________. I think that represents the kind of off-environment we’ve created that doesn’t really encourage or make lifestyle _____________ an easy choice for the population.» Dr. Waqanivalu says the increase in imported foods is only part of the problem. He says problems with agriculture production limit the _____________ of healthier foods. And a lack of physical activity among many Pacific islanders only adds to the obesity problem. The WHO says more than fifty percent of the population is overweight in at least ten Pacific island countries. The rate is as high as eighty percent among women in the territory of American Samoa. Fiji had the _____________ obesity rate at thirty percent. In all, almost ten million people live in Pacific island countries. The WHO estimates that about forty percent of them have health _____________ related to diet and nutrition. Diabetes rates are among the highest in the world. Forty-seven percent of the people in American Samoa have diabetes. So do forty-four percent of the people in Tokelau, a territory of New Zealand. By comparison, the diabetes rate is thirteen percent in the United States, a country that has its own problems with rising obesity. Officials also note an increase in nutritional problems like anemia and not enough vitamin _____________ in the diets of Pacific islanders. Dr. Waqanivalu says treating conditions related to obesity and diet puts pressure on limited health resources and _____________. Earlier this year, leaders of island nations met in Vanuatu for the first-ever Pacific Food Summit. Dr. Waqanivalu says the issues are finally getting the attention they _____________.

82 Celebrating the 50th Anniversary of ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’

1 agosto, 2020
Millions of high school students have ____________ «To Kill a Mockingbird.» The novel by Harper Lee offers moral ____________  about racial justice and respect. It tells the story of a young girl named Scout and her father, Atticus Finch, a ____________ . He defends a black man wrongfully accused of raping a white woman. In the end, an all-white jury sentences Tom Robinson to death. The book is set in the American South in the nineteen thirties. But it was published fifty years ago, on July eleventh, nineteen sixty. It came out as the civil rights movement in the United States was gaining ____________ . Laws and customs in the South, however, still kept blacks and whites mostly separated. A mockingbird is a kind of gray ____________ . The book gets its title from something Atticus Finch was told in his childhood when his father gave him a gun. Gregory Peck won an Academy Award for the nineteen sixty-two film version. ATTICUS FINCH: «I remember when my daddy first gave me that gun, he told me that I should never ____________  at anything in the house, and that I could shoot all the blue jays I wanted, if I could hit them. But remember, it was a ____________  to kill a mockingbird.» Killing them is a sin, he explains, because they don’t ____________  anyone, they just make music. And that is the moral of the story, says Melinda Byrd-Murphy, head of the Alabama Center for Literary Arts. She has read the book four times. MELINDA BYRD-MURPHY: «I think if anything, this story talks about ____________  and the universality of humans and how there’s goodness in people and you just have to get to know one another.» Ms. Byrd-Murphy is a native of Harper Lee’s hometown of Monroeville. The author, who published only the one novel, is still alive but rarely speaks ____________ . Some people say «To Kill a Mockingbird» treats racism in a way that is simplistic, even offensive to blacks, and out of date in today’s America. Still, it has been ____________  into more than forty languages and has sold over forty million copies. It won a Pulitzer Prize and is often ____________  reading in high school. The story ____________  in a town that Harper Lee called Maycomb. But she based the characters on real people she knew growing up. Since then, Monroeville has changed a lot. A number of African-Americans serve in the local government. The ____________ , made famous by the book, is now a museum. A small shop and a fast-food restaurant called Mel’s Dairy Dream have replaced Harper Lee’s ____________  home. But in Monroeville and around the country, fans of «To Kill a Mockingbird» are celebrating its fiftieth anniversary. Events include readings, discussions and movie ____________ .

81 In Kenya, Low-Cost Crop Insurance for Small Farmers

31 julio, 2020
Weather does not discriminate between large and small farms. If it rains too much or too little, crop insurance can pay for __________. Yet insurance usually costs too much for a farmer with as little as a hectare or two of land. But now a program called Kilimo Salama, or __________ farming, offers low-cost insurance in parts of Kenya. The program is offered by the Syngenta Foundation, established by the Swiss agricultural-chemical maker Syngenta. Farmers register at businesses taking part in the program and receive a policy number through their __________. Every time the farmers buy seeds, fertilizer or other inputs, they pay an extra five percent in addition to the price. This extra cost is the insurance premium. The farmers are paid back for the inputs if their crops fail because of __________ or flood. The program is designed for __________ and wheat farmers like Josephat Langat. He owns a two-hectare farm near Eldoret in western Kenya. JOSEPHAT LANGAT: «In a case where we do not have a lot of rainfall, it means we are going to lose all the crops. But this insurance policy is going to __________ the farm inputs that we use in the farms, so that is going to give us the __________ of going back to the farms again if the rains do not come.» He buys his agricultural inputs at Maraba Investments in Eldoret. About two hundred farmers signed up for the insurance __________ the first two weeks that it was being offered there. Beatrice Kemboi is a director of the business. BEATRICE KEMBOI: «When a farmer elects to join the insurance, we sell the product on __________ so that the premium is reduced, so that he doesn’t feel it, so that it __________ him and I’ve also sold the product.» Beatrice Kemboi says every day she and her workers register from five to ten farmers in the program. When farmers buy their inputs, the store worker uses a mobile phone camera to scan __________ symbols that match the product. A text message confirming the policy number and sale is then sent automatically. The program also uses solar-powered weather stations to record local __________ amounts. The data is sent to the UAP Insurance Company. When there is crop failure because of a drought or flood, farmers receive a text message. It tells them to receive __________ from the business where they purchased their inputs.

80 Broccoli and Cauliflower – Their Tops Make Good Eating

30 julio, 2020
Some people say broccoli looks like small _______________, and cauliflower like _______________ clouds. They think broccoli is only green and cauliflower is only white. But these nutritious vegetables also come in more colorful versions. One kind of cauliflower, for example, is orange, and broccoli can be _______________. Broccoli and cauliflower are among the most nutritious vegetables. They are high in Vitamin C, fiber and other nutrients. And they contain substances that are believed to fight cancer. They belong to the cabbage or cole family. Other members include cabbage, collards, Brussels _______________, kale and kohlrabi. Agriculture experts at the Ohio State University Extension say broccoli and cauliflower grow best in _______________ climates. They suggest planting them where the average daily temperature is between eighteen and twenty-six degrees Celsius. Both crops grow best in sunshine and fertile, _______________ soil. But water should not be standing on the soil. Using mulch helps keep the ground moist and cool. Mulch also helps feed the soil and controls _______________. Broccoli and cauliflower can grow outdoors from seed or as small plants. Vincent Fritz of the University of Minnesota Extension suggests that results are far better with small plants. He says the vegetables should be planted so that they can be harvested before the hottest _______________. Experts differ about how to space the plantings in the ground. One suggestion is to plant them in rows about three quarters of a meter to nearly one meter apart. Then place broccoli plants about twenty to thirty centimeters apart in the rows. Set cauliflower plants thirty-eight to about forty-six centimeters from each other in the rows. As it grows, a cauliflower plant will start to form a head. The head contains flower _______________ that are tightly closed and at least two leaves wrapping it. Gather and tie the leaves over the head, and do not wait for the buds to separate before _______________. Harvest the center flower-bud _______________ of broccoli when it reaches the size you want and while the buds are still tightly together. Cut the main stem about twelve to fifteen centimeters below the head. You can eat broccoli and cauliflower raw. Or you can steam them in a small amount of water or stir fry them in a small amount of oil. The less time they cook, the better.

79 Burros Can Do More Than Work Just as Pack Animals

29 julio, 2020
A burro is a small donkey. Another way that people say it is BOOR-oh. The name comes from Spanish and, before that, from a Latin term for a small horse. Donkeys are related to horses. Both are part of the __________ family. Burros reach an average __________ of over a meter. They can weigh more than two hundred twenty-five kilograms. The long-eared animals are often__________ with white noses, jaws and __________. But they can also have coats of red or blue. Burros are known for their sure footing on mountains while carrying heavy __________. Americans know about them mainly from a history of use as pack animals in Arizona and other areas of the desert Southwest. Gold miners and others imported them to work. Animals that escaped or were __________ became the ancestors of burros in the wild today. But burros are not only good pack animals. They can also help calm and control nervous horses and guard sheep and __________ on farms. Robin Rivello from the American Mustang and Burro Association says burros have even protected farm animals against __________. People may have the idea that burros and donkeys do not like being told what to do. Experts say the animals are not being __________. They just like to take their time to consider what they will do. In the United States, there are breeders who __________ and sell burros. Americans can also adopt a burro removed from the wild by the Bureau of Land Management, a federal agency. People who get a wild burro need to «gentle» the animal. Gentling means training it to accept the human attention needed for care and __________. Burros like to clean each other. These desert animals groom themselves with dust. So it is normal for a burro to have some dirt in its coat. A brush can remove __________ mud. Experts advise owners not to let their burros eat too much. Being __________ can ruin their health. Robin Rivello says a burro’s feet should be cleaned and cared for every six to eight weeks. But she warns owners not to raise the feet as high as with a horse. A burro’s legs differ from the legs of a horse. The pain could make the burro __________.

78 With Resistant Crops, Progress Can Raise New Problems

27 julio, 2020
Plant breeders and genetic engineers keep working to give crops the strength to resist __________ like insects, diseases, __________  or floods. But before you can resist a threat, you need to understand it. We told you last week about a newly completed genetic map of the organism that causes late __________ . That disease led to starvation in Ireland from potato shortages in the middle of the eighteen hundreds. The new genome could lead to better ways to protect potatoes, tomatoes and other crops. Science may supply a __________  crop. Yet that does not always guarantee demand. Nik Grunwald from the United States Agriculture Department worked on the international team that completed the genome. He says it is possible to grow potatoes that resist late __________ . But these may not look like Russet potatoes. And most American farmers grow Russets because, as Nik Grunwald puts it, «that is where the demand is.» Another example of scientific progress involves a __________  bacterium known as Bt. Bt is used as a pesticide to fight cotton bollworms, corn borers and other pests. Scientists have found a way to grow cotton plants that contain a Bt gene, reducing the need for pesticides. But sometimes, when one problem gets solved, another one appears. In China, some farmers and researchers blame a __________  in pesticide use for an increase in pests unaffected by Bt. Also, there are concerns that some organisms could begin to resist the plants designed to resist them. And scientists are reporting this week on what they call the «indirect costs» of a virus-resistance gene in Cucurbita. This is the species of squash that includes __________  and gourds. The scientists say virus-resistant transgenic squash are grown throughout the United States and much of Mexico. The genetically engineered squash are usually larger and __________  than wild squash. But a three-year study showed that beetles like to feed more on the transgenic plants, increasing cases of wilt disease. The report by a team from the United States and China appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The researchers point out that gene flow between crops and their wild relatives is common and difficult to contain. They note concerns that wild plants could, as a result, __________  genetically engineered resistances. And these could affect the natural balance in their environment.

77 Write or Wrong: The Death of Handwriting?

24 julio, 2020
Do American children still learn handwriting in school? In this age of the _____________, some people seem to think handwriting lessons are on the way out. We asked a _____________ professor at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee. Steve Graham says he has been hearing about the death of handwriting for the past fifteen years. So is it still being taught? STEVE GRAHAM: «If the results of a survey that we had published this year are accurate, it is being taught by about ninety percent of teachers in grades one to three.» Ninety percent of teachers also say they are required to teach handwriting. But _____________ have yet to answer the question of how well they are teaching it. Professor Graham says one study published this year found that about three out of every four teachers say they are not prepared to teach handwriting. STEVE GRAHAM: «And then when you look at how it’s _____________, you have some teachers who are teaching handwriting by providing instruction for ten, fifteen minutes a day, and then other teachers who basically teach it for sixty to seventy minutes a day — which really for handwriting is pretty much _____________.» Many adults remember learning that way — by copying letters over and over again. Today’s thinking is that short periods of practice are better. Many _____________ also think handwriting should not be taught by itself. Instead, they say it should be used as a way to get students to _____________ ideas. After all, that is why we write. Professor Graham says handwriting involves two skills. One is _____________, which means forming the letters so they can be read. The other is _____________ — writing without having to think about it. The professor says fluency continues to develop up until high school. But not everyone masters these skills. Teachers commonly report that about one-fourth of their kids have poor handwriting. Some people might think handwriting is not important anymore because of computers and voice _____________ programs. But Steve Graham at Vanderbilt says word processing is rarely done in elementary school, especially in the _____________ years. STEVE GRAHAM: «Even when we look at surveys that we’ve done with high school teachers, we find that less than fifty percent of _____________ are done via word processing or with word processing. And, in fact, if we added in taking notes and doing tests in class, most of the writing done in school is done by hand.» American children traditionally first learn to print, then to write in cursive, which connects the letters. But guess what we learned from a _____________ for the College Board, which administers the SAT college admission test. More than seventy-five percent of students choose to print their essay on the test rather than write in cursive.

76 Parsley: Not Just Another Pretty Green

23 julio, 2020
Parsley is an ancient green and a respected addition to many foods. But other times, its job is just to make a ___________ plate look pretty. Poor parsley, valued for its looks, then thrown away. Yet parsley is a good source of vitamins and other ___________. The taste is a little strong for some people, yet others chew on parsley to freshen their breath. Curly parsley is the kind that often ends up being used just for appearance. Many gardeners grow ___________ parsley as a border for flowerbeds. Flat-leaf parsley is easier to work with for cooking. This kind is often called Italian or French parsley. Do you know about a third kind of parsley? Hamburg parsley has flat leaves that can be used for the same purposes as other parsley. But Hamburg parsley has a large ___________ which is used as a vegetable. It can be used, for example, to add flavor to soups. Hamburg parsley is popular, not surprisingly, in Germany, home to the city of Hamburg. Parsley is often served with lamb, fish and beef ___________. It is also used in foods such as tabouli, a traditional Lebanese salad. Parsley is an herb if you use just the greens. If the root is used, then parsley is considered a vegetable. Some gardeners suggest that to get the best tasting parsley, you should plant new seeds every year. You can get parsley to grow faster by ___________ warm water over the seeds. Leave the seeds in the water overnight. Then you can grow them in containers indoors or plant them outside. Charlie Nardozzi is a writer for the National Gardening Association in the United States. He says parsley grows best when temperatures are under twenty-one degrees Celsius. In colder climates, parsley can go into the ground two to three weeks before the last winter ___________ is likely to happen. Charlie Nardozzi says parsley likes to grow in sunny places or in partial sun. The seeds need rich, ___________ soil. Plant the seeds about fifteen to twenty-five centimeters apart. Water regularly during the first month. After that, parsley does not need very much water. Ron Waldrop is a county extension director for the University of Illinois. He says you can harvest parsley by ___________ most of the plant, or leave more of the plant in the ground for a second crop. To dry parsley, ___________ the plant stems together and hang them upside down in a warm, dark, airy place. The leaves should be dry in a week or two. After that, store them in a tightly closed container.

75 Saving the ‘World’s Most Holy River’

22 julio, 2020
Christians, Jews and Muslims all consider the Jordan River holy. Last week, Pope Benedict visited the place where John the Baptist is believed to have ___________ Jesus in its waters. The leader of the world’s Roman Catholics blessed the  ___________ of two churches to be built next to the river. Jordan was the first stop on a Middle East trip in which he also visited Israel and the Palestinian territories. The Israeli environmental organization Zalul has appealed to the pope and other world leaders to help save what it calls the «world’s most holy river.» The Jordan River is  ___________ and in danger of going dry. The World Monuments Fund placed the river on its two thousand eight watch list of one hundred most endangered sites. The Jordan is more than three hundred kilometers long. It begins in the mountains of Lebanon and Syria. It ends at the  ___________ Sea, the lowest point on Earth, four hundred meters below the level of the Mediterranean Sea. The southern part of the river forms the border between Jordan and Israel and includes part of the Palestinian territories. Friends of the Earth Middle East is an organization of activists from Israel, Jordan and the territories. The group began as «EcoPeace» in nineteen ninety-four in Egypt. Nader Al-Khateeb, the Palestinian director of the group, says the Jordan has lost freshwater sources. There has been little  ___________ for five years. At the same time, populations along the banks of the river are growing. That increases demand for water. Political tensions and conflict have made it difficult to  ___________ the problems. Members of Friends of the Earth Middle East say the Jordan could run dry unless something is done. If the Jordan River is saved, they say, then the Dead Sea could also be brought back to life. The Dead Sea lost thirty-three percent of its  ___________ area during the last half-century. There have been several proposals to pump water into the Dead Sea from the Red Sea or the Mediterranean. But Friends of the Earth Middle East says that would cost too much and could damage the  ___________. The group has simpler ideas — like reducing water use at schools and other buildings in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian territories. Other ideas including  ___________ whatever rain does fall and sharing water. But most importantly, the activists hope Israel, Jordan and Syria can create an international commission to manage the Jordan River.

74 Let Us Plant Lettuce…

21 julio, 2020
Even in ancient times, people liked to eat lettuce. Egyptians and Romans served the green, __________ vegetable at the end of dinner. Now, people in some countries start the meal with lettuce as part of a salad. There are hundreds of kinds of lettuce. The main ones include __________ lettuce, such as iceberg, leaf lettuce, Boston, bibb and romaine. Experts say lettuce is one of the easiest crops to grow in your garden. The best time to plant the seeds is during cool __________. The University of Illinois Extension advises that the best planting temperature is fifteen degrees Celsius. Lettuce seeds are small, so do not place them too __________ in the ground. If you plant some seeds every week or two, you will have crops ready to eat one after another. To start the seeds inside, you can use a seed tray in your home or other __________. This container should be deep enough to hold at least three centimeters of soil or more. There should be about one centimeter of space between the soil and the top of the container. The container should have holes in the bottom so the extra water can __________. Drop the seeds over the surface and cover them lightly with soil. If the soil is not already a little wet, give it some water. But do not drown the seeds. Next, cover the seed tray with paper. When the seedlings have come up far enough to touch the paper, take it __________. You can transplant the seedlings into the garden when they are about two to three centimeters tall. Do this when the weather is not too hot and not too cold. Take out as much __________ as you can with the seedlings. Then dig a hole in the ground bigger than the lettuce roots. Water the plants but not too heavily. Harvest leaf lettuces when the leaves are big enough to eat. Pull the leaves from the outside of the planting so the inside leaves will keep growing. Or, you can _________ the whole plant. Leave about two or three centimeters above the ground so the plant will re-grow. Cut off head lettuces at ground level. Lettuce is best when served fresh, so make a salad and enjoy. Store the unused part in the refrigerator in a plastic bag. It will last __________ a few days, sometimes longer.

73 Students Learn About Sustainable Agriculture

20 julio, 2020
Many colleges and universities in the United States provide education in agriculture. But only a few schools offer experience in traditional hands-on field _________ in addition to classes. Sustainable agriculture is a major _________ at these colleges. They teach the need for farming to improve the environment and make good use of natural resources. Students grow organic food and use as little fossil fuels and chemicals as possible. Sterling College in Craftsbury Common, Vermont, is one of the colleges that supports sustainable agriculture. Students produce some of their own _________. They prepare the soil for planting with their hands or simple _________. They do not use much big machinery that uses gasoline. This month, students are making their own sugar and maple syrup. After liquid sap is taken from sugar maple _________, it goes to a sugarhouse where the sap is boiled. Students built the sugarhouse. The college _________ has solar-powered barns, gardens, fruit trees, greenhouses and animals. Sterling College President Will Wootton says the school’s Sustainable Agriculture Program includes pay for farm jobs. The money reduces the cost of the students’ education. The students care for steers, _________, chickens, a turkey, goats and _________. A pig and a guard llama also live on the farm. Goshen College in Wolf Lake, Indiana, is another college teaching sustainable agriculture. In June, students at the Agroecology Summer Intensive Program begin taking courses like Introduction to Soils. Agroecology examines the connection between agricultural _________ and the environment. At the same time, Goshen students start nine weeks of work on the college’s farm. They will plant crops like collard greens, kale, _________, lettuce and _________. They will mix leaves, animal waste and food waste from the college’s kitchens to make compost. The students use the mixture to fertilize the soil instead of buying chemical fertilizers that could harm the environment. Professor Dale Hess directs Goshen College’s Environmental Education Collegiate Program. Professor Hess says a major value of sustainable agriculture is making good use of what you have. He says knowing how to do this may be especially valuable if fossil fuel should become _________. Professor Hess says food security is national security.

72 How Strangers Can Make You Happy

19 julio, 2020
What makes people happier: money or having happy friends and neighbors? Researchers from Harvard University and the University of California, San Diego, have found an answer as part of a study. Nicholas Christakis and James Fowler based the study on the emotional ___________ of almost five thousand people. They used information ___________ over a period of twenty years, until two thousand three, in the Framingham Heart Study. That study began sixty years ago in Framingham, Massachusetts, to learn more about the risks of heart attack and ___________. The new study found that friends of happy people had a greater chance of being happy themselves. And the smaller the ___________ distance between friends, the larger the effect they had on each other’s happiness. For example, a person was twenty percent more likely to feel happy if a friend living within one and a half kilometers was also happy. Having a happy neighbor who lived next door increased an individual’s chance of being happy by thirty-four percent. The effects of friends’ happiness ___________ for up to a year. The researchers found that happiness really is ___________. Sadness also spread among friends, but not as much as happiness. People removed by as much as three degrees of separation still had an effect on a person’s happiness. Three degrees of separation means the friend of a friend of a friend. The study showed that having an extra five thousand dollars increased a person’s chances of becoming ___________ by about two percent. But the researchers found that the influence of a friend of a friend of a friend can be greater than that. Another finding is that people who are ___________ or work together do not have as much of an effect on happiness as friends do. The findings appeared in the British Medical Journal. The National Institute on Aging in the United States helped pay for the study. The study is described as the first to demonstrate the indirect ___________ of happiness. In other words, that your emotions can be affected by someone you do not directly know. Earlier studies by the two researchers described the effects of social networks on ___________ and efforts to stop smoking. The new study shows that happiness spreads through social networks like an emotional virus — a virus people would be happy to ___________.

71 Do-It-Yourself: Growing Potatoes

18 julio, 2020
True or false? Potatoes are root vegetables. False. Potatoes are underground __________ called tubers. Most kinds of potatoes can be planted during cool weather. But John Masiunas of the University of Illinois Extension says it may be best to wait until after the last winter __________. The extension service says the best formation happens when the __________ is between fifteen and twenty-one degrees Celsius. Tubers will not form if the soil temperature reaches twenty-seven degrees. Potatoes are started from «seed pieces.» These are either small __________ potatoes or potatoes cut into pieces. Each piece should weigh about forty to sixty grams. The experts at the University of Illinois say pieces that __________ less than thirty grams may not produce as much. Each piece must have at least one good «eye,» the small dark __________ where a sprout will grow. Soon after the pieces are cut, plant them twenty-five to thirty centimeters apart. Cover them in a __________ between two and one-half and seven and one-half centimeters deep. The rows should be spaced about sixty to ninety centimeters apart. For potatoes, the best soil is fertile and well __________, not wet. To improve clay soils, mix in garden waste or other organic matter and turn the soil deeply in the fall. If possible, in the year before you plant potatoes, plant a cover crop to improve the soil and the potato production. The extension service suggests a crop such as __________, buckwheat or winter rye. After the potato plants appear, organic __________ can be spread around to hold moisture, help suppress weed growth and cool the soil. John Masiunas says water management is extremely important. Potatoes do not grow well in very dry conditions. Some gardeners plant potatoes under __________, or stems of dried grain. Instead of burying the seed pieces, place them at the surface. Then spread __________ straw ten to fifteen centimeters deep over the seed pieces and between the planted rows. The potatoes should send up sprouts through the straw cover. You can wait till the fall to harvest potatoes, or harvest them during the growing season as new potatoes. But whatever you do, make sure to handle potatoes carefully. They can __________ easily, and damaged potatoes can quickly go bad.

70 How to Do It: Making Paper by Hand

17 julio, 2020
The earliest process of making paper was done almost five thousand years ago in Egypt and the Nile Valley. In those days, paper was made from ____________ of the papyrus plant. Modern paper-making began in China about two thousand years ago. This process produced paper from ____________, straw, wood or the ____________ of trees. The raw materials are struck over and over until they become ____________. Then they are mixed with water. After the water has been removed, the flat, thin form remaining is permitted to dry. This becomes a ____________ of paper. Large machines started to be used for making paper near the end of the sixteenth century. Today, paper-making is a big business. But it is still possible to make paper by hand, since the ____________ are the same as using big machines. You should choose paper with small amounts of printing. Old envelopes are good for this reason. Colored paper also can be used, as well as ____________ amounts of newspaper. Small pieces of ____________ or cloth can be added. These should be cut into pieces about five centimeters by five centimeters. Everything is placed in a container, covered with water, and brought to a ____________. It is mixed for about two hours with some common chemicals and then allowed to ____________. Then it is left until most of the water dries up. The substance left, called pulp, can be stored until you are ready to make paper. When you are ready, the pulp is mixed with water again. Then the pulp is poured into a special box or mold. The mold is made of small ____________ of wire that hold the shape and thickness of the paper. To help dry the paper, the mold lets the water ____________ through the small wire squares. After several more drying steps, the paper is carefully lifted back from the mold. It is now ____________ enough to be touched. The paper is smoothed and pressed to remove trapped air. You can use a common electric ____________ used for pressing clothes. There are many other technologies for people making paper using small ____________.

69 Giving Grasslands a Rest

16 julio, 2020
Grasslands need time to rest when ___________ and other animals feed on them. Moving animals from one area of pasture to another can provide the time needed for new growth. This is called rotational grazing, and we received a question from Zhang Guohui in China about how it works. Experts say rotational grazing is good for the land and the animals, and it can save ___________. This form of grazing can reduce the need for pesticide treatments by reducing the growth of weeds. And it can limit the need for chemical fertilizers by letting animal waste do the job of natural fertilizer. Rotational grazing can even help prevent ___________ by keeping grasslands in good condition. Letting animals feed continually and intensively in the same grazing areas can require costly replanting. Animals eat the most desirable ___________ first. When that keeps happening, the roots do not have enough time to recover. As a result, less desirable plants may replace them. Intensively used grasslands are also harmed as the soil is continually crushed under the weight of heavy animals. And the animals usually avoid their own waste, so that reduces the amount of good grazing ___________ even more. Experts say that while rotational grazing can save money over time, it also requires planning. And that starts with a good map to mark ___________, water supplies and grazing areas. Changing methods of grazing also requires time. Farmers may want to put up electric fences to enclose grazing areas, called paddocks. The paddocks will need water. Some farmers design a ___________ for animals from different paddocks to drink from a common watering place. Farmers can start rotational grazing by removing animals from a pasture when the grass is ___________ to less than five centimeters. The pasture is then kept empty until the grass grows to more than fifteen centimeters high. Experts say sheep and ___________ may require special preparations. They may need stronger fences than other animals. And while they eat the grass, they may need guard animals to protect them from animals that would like to ___________ them.

68 Looking for Energy in Algae

15 julio, 2020
The search for new fuels has led some researchers to ___________. Algae is a name for thousands of different organisms. They include single-celled plants as well as ___________ and other large plants. Kenneth Bruland is an ocean sciences professor at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He says many experts also consider plant-like ___________ to be a form of algae. These bacteria make food from the sun like plants do. Algae grow ___________ and some contain a lot of oils. Most algae-to-energy researchers are growing algae in ___________ tanks. But one company, Blue Marble Energy in Seattle, Washington, uses algae already growing along ___________. Workers pump it into bags on a boat. They have to be careful not to suck up young fish or other small creatures. Blue Marble says its work could help prevent harmful algae blooms. A bloom is when a dense area of algae forms and ___________. Some blooms can harm people, animals or the environment. Warmer water can cause blooms, and some scientists think global warming is adding to an increase in large ones. Nutrients from ___________ and agricultural fertilizers also help algae grow. Blue Marble is a start-up company with private investors. It also has a contract with Washington state to collect the algae called ulva, or sea ___________, in parts of Seattle’s Puget Sound waterway. In Puget Sound, big blooms of sea lettuce often break down in Dumas Bay. This process of ___________ uses up oxygen and kills marine life. And when the sea lettuce washes up on the beach, it smells terrible. Blue Marble President Kelly Ogilvie says his company has collected almost four thousand kilos of algae in two ___________. The next step is to use bacteria to break down the algae into natural gas and different chemicals. Most companies doing algae-to-energy research are creating liquid ___________ for cars or airplanes. But some people have concerns about harvesting ___________ algae. University of Washington researcher Kevin Britton-Simmons says removing the algae does not solve the problem. He says keeping fertilizer and other pollutants out of the water would ___________ a lot of unnatural blooms. He also says it is difficult to tell the difference between natural algae blooms and those caused by human activity. He says removing natural blooms would remove valuable food for ___________ life.

67 Growing Crops With Less Water

14 julio, 2020
Scientists are working to ____________ crop plants that can reduce the amount of water used for agriculture. Almost sixty percent of the world’s freshwater withdrawals from rivers, lakes and other water resources go toward ____________ fields. Scientists are using biotechnology as well as traditional breeding methods to develop water-saving crops to feed a growing world. Thomas «Tommy» Carter is a plant scientist in North Carolina. He works for the Agricultural Research Service in the United States Department of Agriculture. He leads Team Drought, a group of researchers at five universities. They have been using conventional ____________ methods to develop soybeans that can grow well under dry conditions.Tommy Carter started working on drought-resistant soybeans in nineteen eighty-one. His research has taken him as far as China, where soybeans have been grown for thousands of years. Farmers in the United States, however, have grown soybeans for only about a ____________. Tommy Carter says the soybeans they grow are for the most part genetically similar. More differences, or diversification, could better protect crops against climate changes that can reduce production. Those changes include water ____________ which could increase from global warming. The Agriculture Department has a soybean germplasm collection, a collection of genetic material passed from one generation to the next. Members of Team Drought studied more than two thousand five hundred examples from the collection. They looked at ones from the ancestral home of soybeans, Asia. They searched for germplasms that could keep plants from ____________ and wilting during hot, dry summers in the United States. Tommy Carter says they found only five. But these slow-wilting lines, he says, produce four to eight ____________ more than normal soybeans under drought conditions. The yield depends on location and environment. The team is now doing ____________ tests. The first breeding line is expected to be released next year for use by private seed companies and public soybean ____________. Scientists are also working on other plants that either use less water or use it ____________, or both. For example, companies like Monsanto, DuPont and Syngenta are developing corn with reduced water needs. Monsanto expects to be ready in four years to market its first ____________ seeds genetically engineered to resist drought.

66 Cooking Meals With the Sun

13 julio, 2020
Millions of people around the world cook their food over a __________ every day. It is often difficult to find wood for the fire. People who do not have __________ must spend large amounts of money on cooking fuel. However, there is a much easier way to cook food using energy from the sun. Solar cookers, or ovens, have been used for centuries. A Swiss scientist made the first solar oven in __________. Today, people are using solar cookers in many countries around the world. People use solar ovens to cook food and to __________ drinking water to kill __________ and other harmful organisms. There are three kinds of solar ovens. The first is a box cooker. It is designed with a special wall that shines or reflects __________ into the box. Heat gets trapped under a piece of glass or plastic covering the top of the cooker. A box oven is effective for __________ cooking of large amounts of food. The second kind of solar oven is a __________ cooker. It includes several flat walls, or panels, that directly reflect the sun’s light onto the food. The food is inside a __________ container of plastic or glass that traps heat energy. People can build panel cookers quickly and with very few supplies. They do not cost much. In Kenya, for example, panel cookers are being manufactured for just two dollars. The third kind of solar oven is a __________ cooker. It has rounded walls that aim sunlight directly into the bottom of the oven. Food cooks quickly in parabolic ovens. However, these cookers are __________ to make. They must be re-aimed often to follow the sun. Parabolic cookers can also cause burns and eye __________ if they are not used correctly. You can make solar ovens from boxes or heavy paper. They will not catch fire. Paper burns at two hundred thirty-two degrees Celsius. A solar cooker never gets that hot. Solar ovens cook food at low temperatures over long __________ of time. This permits people to __________ food to cook while they do other things. You can learn more about solar cooking at Or write to Solar Cookers International. The postal address is nineteen nineteen Twenty-first Street, Sacramento, California, nine-five-eight-one-one, USA.

65 Much About Much

12 julio, 2020
Mulch is important to farmers. Mulch is a protective cover of material that is spread on top of soil. It is usually made out of organic material, like ___________ wastes. Farmers may keep the remains of ___________ or other crops on top of the soil. This creates mulch on the soil ___________. The plant remains help protect the soil against wind and water damage. This is called conservation tillage. Mulching is one of the best things people can do for their plants. Mulch not only protects the soil against wind and water damage. It also helps keep the soil from getting ___________, and reduces the need for watering plants. It also limits temperature changes in the soil. And it stops unwanted plants, or ___________, from growing. Organic mulch improves the condition of soil. As the mulch breaks down, it provides material which keeps the soil from getting ___________. This improves the growth of roots and increases the movement of water through the soil. It also improves the ability of the soil to hold water. Organic mulch contains ___________ for plants. It also provides a good environment for ___________ and other helpful organisms in the soil. Finding organic mulch materials can be easy. Small pieces of tree ___________ and cut up leaves can be used. Grass cuttings are also a good mulch for plants. Using newspapers for mulch also works well in controlling weeds. The best time to add mulch depends on your ___________. Mulch provides a thick barrier between the soil and the air. This helps to reduce temperature changes in the soil. As a result, in the summertime, mulched soil will be cooler than other soil. Mulched areas usually warm up more slowly in the spring and ___________ slowly in autumn. In winter, the mulched soil may not freeze as deeply as other soil. Mulch can be added late in autumn to help moderate the effects of winter ___________. The best time is after the ground has frozen but before the coldest weather arrives. Spreading mulch before the ground has frozen may attract small animals searching for a warm place to spend the winter. ___________ the spreading should prevent this problem. The animals will probably find another place to live.

64 Architecture for Humanity Helps Poor Communities

11 julio, 2020
Slums are ____________ populated areas of housing where people live in ____________ and dirty conditions. The United Nations Population Fund estimates that by two thousand twenty, a billion and a half people will live in slums. These are among the people that a group called Architecture for Humanity wants to help. Architecture for Humanity is a nonprofit organization based in California. The group provides free ____________ and architectural services to poor communities. Cameron Sinclair is the executive director. He says Architecture for Humanity has developed a network of about four thousand ____________ in one hundred countries. They partner with local communities to work on projects. Cameron Sinclair says a «community design» process gives everyone an ____________ in the project. Architecture for Humanity also provides money and ____________ training to build structures. In some cases, this training has led to separate micro businesses within communities. Architecture for Humanity is ten years old and has built about two hundred fifty structures around the world. The group is building schools in West Africa through a ____________ with UNICEF, the United Nations Children’s Fund. And it is working with football’s governing organization, FIFA, to build sport centers in Africa before the two thousand ten World Cup. The group also designed housing and community plans in ____________ after the South Asian ____________ in two thousand four. Structures built by the nonprofit do not require electric power. Two years ago, Architecture for Humanity launched a Web site to make architectural plans and ____________ freely available for download. The Open Architecture Network has about twelve thousand registered users and two thousand projects. Anyone can add projects and ideas to the site, Cameron Sinclair predicts that the Open Architecture Network will one day have enough designs to fit any ____________ or situation. Architecture for Humanity has a ____________ this year of almost one and a half million dollars. The executive director says about ninety percent goes toward materials, labor and skills training.

63 Scientists Link Gene Changes to Longer Lives

10 julio, 2020
Scientists continue to search for genetic answers to why some people live a long time. One study has now examined more than four hundred fifty people between the _____________ of ninety-five and one hundred ten. Researchers at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University in New York recently reported the latest _____________. The study looked at changes in genes that _____________ an important cell-signaling pathway. These genes are involved in the action of a hormone that affects almost every kind of cell in the body. The hormone is called insulin-like growth factor, or IGF-one. Other researchers have found that _____________ to the genes cause two effects in animals. The animals do not grow as big as others of their kind but they live longer. The Einstein team wondered if these changes might also _____________ how long humans live. So they looked for the mutations in their study group of Ashkenazi, or Eastern European, Jews. Ashkenazi Jews are more genetically similar than most other groups, so any differences are easier to find. The researchers compared the findings to other Ashkenazi Jews whose family members did not live _____________. In the control group, they say, no one had the mutations. Yet even in the study group, where the average age was one hundred, only two percent of the people had them. In other words, there are more answers waiting to be found. In recent years, the scientists have even identified so-called _____________ genes. The latest findings were published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The mutations were found mostly in women. Daughters of those who lived to be one hundred had higher levels of the hormone than people in the control group. And they were an average of two and a half centimeters _____________. A drug that decreases the action of the IGF-one hormone is currently being tested as a cancer treatment. Nir Barzilai, leader of the Einstein study, says the drug could be useful in delaying the effects of aging. But he noted that the subjects in the study were born with their mutations. So it is not clear whether the drug would help people who receive it later. Doctor Barzilai also _____________ that many people are receiving treatments with human growth hormone to try to delay the effects of aging. Yet he says if low growth-hormone action extends life, as the new findings suggest, then he wonders if getting more of it could _____________ life.

62 Automakers, Airlines Hit by Sky-High Fuel Prices

9 julio, 2020
There was more ___________ this week of the effects of high oil prices on the transportation industry. Automakers reported further drops in sales of trucks and ___________, sport utility vehicles, in the United States. Big, fuel-hungry vehicles brought in big profits — until Americans faced big costs for fuel. Now they want smaller and more fuel-efficient cars. The head of General Motors, Rick Wagoner, says the prices are changing consumer ___________, maybe permanently. G.M. sales in the United States in May dropped thirty percent from last year. The Ford Motor Company had a nineteen percent drop. Toyota sales in the United States were down eight percent. But another Japanese maker, Honda, reported an eleven percent increase on ___________ sales of cars. General Motors announced it will close four truck factories in North America and expand car production. It may also sell its Hummer division. Hummers are military-like vehicles. But Rick Wagoner said G.M. will go forward with plans to make the Chevy Volt, a car powered mainly by electricity. He says it will be available no later than the end of two thousand ten. Still, new ___________ show that Americans are driving less. The Federal Highway Administration says the number of ___________ traveled on public ___________ has dropped since late two thousand six. Many people may be driving less because of high gasoline prices. But transportation officials worry that less demand for gasoline will mean ___________ of money from fuel taxes that support roads. Use of public transportation, ___________, is up. The American Public Transportation Association says it increased three percent in the first three months of this year over last year. High fuel prices are also affecting air travel. The International Air Transport Association expects the industry to lose at least two billion dollars this year, mainly because of prices for ___________ fuel. This week, more ___________ in the United States announced plans to cut flights and jobs and remove older, less fuel-efficient planes from service. Continental Airlines said record-high fuel prices have produced the ___________ crisis for the industry since the terrorist attacks of two thousand one. Continental announced Thursday that it will reduce flights in the United States by sixteen percent during the last three months of the year. The airline will cut three thousand jobs, about seven percent of its positions ___________.

61 Climate Change Meets American Agriculture

8 julio, 2020
A government report says climate change is already affecting American agriculture. The new report is from the Climate Change Science Program, which ___________________ the research efforts of thirteen federal agencies. President George Bush launched the program six years ago. Here are some of the ___________________ by scientists: The growing season has increased by ten to fourteen days in ___________________ parts of the United States over the last nineteen years. Much of the East and South now get more rain than a century ago. But the report says there is some evidence of increased ___________________ conditions in the West and Southwest. Western states have less snow and ___________________ on the mountains and earlier ___________________ in the spring. Grain and oilseed crops are likely to develop faster with increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. But higher temperatures will increase the risk of ___________________. Also, ___________________ crops such as tomatoes, onions and fruit are more easily affected by climate change than grains and oilseed crops. Fewer animals will die during warmer winters, but greater numbers will die during hotter summers. And temperature extremes reduce animal production of meat or milk products. Forests in the West, the Southwest and Alaska already have increases in fires, insect ___________________ and dead trees. But young forests on good ___________________ will be more productive because of increased carbon dioxide levels. At the same time, invasive plants will also grow faster and are likely to move ___________________. Recent research also suggests that weeds might get harder to kill with glyphosate, the most widely used plant killer in the United States. The Department of Agriculture was the lead agency for the new report. Thirty-eight scientists from universities, national laboratories, ___________________ organizations and federal service wrote it. They considered more than one thousand scientific publications. The report was the strongest statement yet by the Bush administration that human activity is the main cause of climate change in the last fifty years. Carbon dioxide from the burning of oil, natural gas and coal is the main gas ___________________ for trapping heat in the atmosphere. The report says warming is very likely to continue in the United States during the next twenty-five to fifty years. And it says this is so even if future greenhouse-gas ___________________ are reduced.

60 Physical Education Aims for Active Lives, Fewer Painful Memories

7 julio, 2020
1. How many hours per week of physical activity should elementary schools in the US give?  two hours. two and a half hours. four hours. 2. How many hours per week of physical activity should high schools in the US give?  four hours. two and a half hours. two hours. 3. In 2006 a study found that ______ of elementary schools provided daily physical education all year for all grades.  0.4% 4% 14% 4. The study also found that ______ of all schools did not require students to take any P.E.  8% 20% 22% 5. Parents think that children need exercise in school.  True. False. The author doesn’t say. 6. P.E. classes are now based on personal performance.  True. False. The author doesn’t say. 7. All parents like the idea of competitive sports in P.E. class.  True. False. The author doesn’t say.

59 UN Aims to Raise Potatoes’ Appeal

7 julio, 2020
1. The International Year of the Potato is  2008. 2009. 2010. 2. How many potatoes has produced the world last year?  320 tons. 320,000 tons. 320,000,000 tons. 3. The top producer is  Russia. China. India. 4. This season India produced  8 million tons. 80 million tons. 800 million tons. 5. In India potatoes are now cheaper than rice.  True. False. The author doesn’t say. 6. Potatoes require very much water.  True. False. The author doesn’t say. 7. The first potatoes appeared in Peru  more than 700 years ago. more than 7,000 years ago. more than 1,000 years ago.

58 Farming Marginal Lands

6 julio, 2020
To call land «marginal» means it is not very good. Farmers have their own way to describe it. Marginal land is the ___________ to be planted under good conditions and the ___________ to be avoided when situations are bad. Low quality soil is not the only reason why land could be considered marginal. The land might be in an area where ___________ is limited. Or it might be on a ___________ that ___________ too sharply. Yet there are uses for marginal land. Most often it is used as grassland. Grasses provide excellent ___________ for grazing animals like cattle, ___________ and goats. A farmer might use native grasses or non-native ___________. Either way, it is important to establish good ground cover to avoid the loss of soil through erosion. Forage crops like clover and ___________ could be planted. These members of the legume family provide high protein food for grazing animals. They also improve the quality of the soil. Most ___________ use up nitrogen. But legumes put nitrogen back into the soil. Forage crops also help limit ___________. But using marginal land for grazing is not as simple as it might sound. There is a risk of overgrazing. Cattle can damage forage crops by eating down to the ___________. Also, the animals ___________ the soil with their weight. That can make the ground too hard for growing. A way to reduce the damage is to move animals from one field to another. This method is known as ___________ grazing. Agricultural experts say rotational grazing is extremely important for marginal land. Another use for marginal land is for tree crops. Studies have shown that the ___________ and loblolly pine are two kinds of trees that grow well on such land. They grow fast and provide good quality wood. Another kind to consider is the poplar. And there are slower-growing trees like the black ___________ that provide wood as well as a nut crop. Trees help support the soil. They reduce the damaging effects of wind and rain. And they can provide grazing animals with ___________ from the sun. Marginal lands need care to protect them. Failing to take that care might only make a bad situation worse. But good ___________ can turn a marginal resource into a highly productive one.

57 Something a Bone Will Never Say: Give Me a Break

5 julio, 2020
The medical term for a broken bone is a fracture. But there are different kinds of fractures. A single fracture is when a bone is broken in just one place. You may have heard the term ___________ fracture. This is a single fracture that is very small, like the width of a ___________. A complete fracture is when the bone comes apart. When a bone is broken in more than two places or gets ___________, the name for it is a comminuted fracture. Still another kind is a bowing fracture. This happens with a bone that ___________ but does not break. It happens mostly in children. Ever heard of a greenstick fracture? This is when a bone is bent and breaks along only one side, like a young stick of ___________. Another kind of break is an open or compound fracture. This is when the bone breaks the ___________. This is very serious. Along with the bone damage there is a risk of infection in the open ___________. A lot of things happen as the body reacts to an ___________ like a broken bone. You might suddenly feel ___________. You might also feel sick to your stomach. People who are seriously injured can go into shock. They might feel cold, ___________ and unable to think clearly. Shock requires immediate medical attention. But while broken bones can be painful, they are generally not life-threatening. Still, broken bones should be treated quickly because they can restrict blood flow or cause nerve damage. Also, the break will start to repair itself, so you want to make sure the bone is lined up correctly. ___________ are taken to see the break. Treatment depends on the kind of fracture that is identified. A doctor sets a broken bone to make sure it is in the correct position. Severe breaks may require an operation to hold the bone together with metal plates and ___________. Then, a hard cast may be put around the area of the break to hold the bone in place while it ___________. Casts are usually worn for one to two months. In some cases, instead of a cast, a ___________ made of plastic or metal will be secured over the area to restrict movement. Bones need calcium and vitamin D to grow and reach their full ___________. Keeping bones strong with exercise may also help prevent fractures, especially if you wear the right sports protection during activities. If you think elbow and knee ___________ might be restrictive, try wearing a cast.

56 Disappearance of Honey Bees a Mystery

4 julio, 2020
What has happened to America’s honeybees? Last fall, ____________ from states with warm climates began to report a sudden loss of honey bees. Losses were reported in twenty-four states and into Canada. Today, some beekeepers say thirty percent to ninety percent of their honey bees are gone. Food prices could ____________ as a result. And some beekeeping businesses have failed. Many kinds of plants, trees and grasses need bees to pollinate them. Bees gather ____________ from flowers during this process. The liquid gives them food and material to make honey. As the bees land on flowers, their bodies ____________ and ____________ fine particles of ____________. Most flowering plants need pollination to reproduce. Honey bees can die during the winter. But few dead bees have been found. Instead, the bees seem to have disappeared. Experts call the condition «colony collapse ____________.» Agriculture Department official Caird Rexroad said the collapse threatens about fifteen billion dollars worth of the country’s farm economy. Mister Rexroad commented at a hearing of a House of Representatives agriculture subcommittee. Mister Rexroad said the cause of the sudden ____________ of bees is not clear. The number of honey bees already had fallen before the colony collapse disorder began. Experts say the varroa mite is at least partly responsible for the earlier decrease in honeybees. The mite is a tiny ____________ that feeds on honeybees. It may play a part in colony collapse disorder by carrying bee ____________. Or the problem may be caused by other diseases and weather conditions. A group of scientists is examining bees from more than one hundred colonies across the country. The researchers also are studying the pollen, honey, and ____________ that the bees produce. They are working with the Agriculture Department’s Agricultural Research Service. Diana Cox-Foster of Pennsylvania State University is part of the scientific group. Miz Cox-Foster says the nation needs honeybees that can ____________ themselves better against disease and insects. The recent mapping of most of the honeybee’s ____________ offers hope of a stronger honeybee some day.

55 US Agency Says Cloned Animals Safe to Eat

3 julio, 2020
The United States government wants to know what the public thinks about its findings on the safety of cloned animals. The Food and Drug Administration says meat and milk from clones of adult ____________, pigs and ____________ are safe to eat. An F.D.A. official called them «as safe to eat as the food we eat every day.» And when those clones reproduce sexually, the agency says, their ____________ are safe to eat as well. But research on cloned sheep is limited. So the F.D.A. proposes that sheep clones not be used for human food. The United States this year could become the first country to ____________ the sale of foods from cloned animals. First, however, the public will have ninety days to comment on three proposed documents. On December twenty-eighth the F.D.A. released a long report, called a draft risk ____________, along with two policy documents. The agency says it must receive comments by April second. The F.D.A. seemed ready to act several years ago, but an ____________ committee called for more research. For now, the government will continue to ask producers to honor a request that they not sell foods from cloned animals. Clones are still rare. They cost a lot and are difficult to produce. Some people think ____________ might find it difficult to export products from cloned animals. Critics question the safety. Animal rights ____________ also have objections. The F.D.A. says most food from cloning is expected to come not from clones themselves, but from their sexually reproduced offspring. It says clones are expected to be used mostly ____________ animals to spread desirable qualities. Public opinion studies show that most Americans do not like the idea of food from cloned animals. But this research also shows that the public knows little about cloning. Cloning differs from genetic ____________. A cell taken from a so-called donor animal is grown into an ____________ in the laboratory. Next, the embryo is placed into the uterus of a female animal. If the process is successful, the pregnancy reaches full term and a genetic copy of the donor animal is ____________. The F.D.A. sees no scientific reason to require special labels on products that involved cloning. But companies could ____________ products as «clone-free,» if statements do not suggest that one product might be safer than another.

54 Want to Grow a Root? Beets Are Hard to Beat

2 julio, 2020
Beets are a tasty __________ vegetable that do not require much work to grow. People might think beets are always dark red. But they can also be pink, yellow or white. Beets with circles of red and white inside are known as candy __________ or candy stripe beets. Beets are high in nutrients including folate, __________ and fiber. They can be eaten fresh or frozen, canned or pickled. And not just the root but also the tops can be eaten. The leaves make good salads when the plants are young, and the greens can be __________ when the plants are older. Beets like cool temperatures, between sixteen and eighteen degrees Celsius. They grow best in full sun and in __________ soil that is not too wet. Remove stones from the soil while preparing the ground. And test the soil before adding __________ and fertilizer. Some experts say the best fertilizers for beets are low in nitrogen. Beets need the acidity level in the soil to be six to seven and a half. Beet __________ can be planted as soon as the soil is able to be worked at the start of the growing season. Planting them every two or three weeks would provide a continuous __________ into the fall. Iowa State University horticulture specialist Cindy Haynes suggests planting the seeds one and one-quarter centimeters __________. They should be planted in rows that are spaced thirty to forty-six centimeters apart. A beet seed is a fruit containing several seeds. __________ the plants will mean that the roots cannot spread out and grow. Thin the beets by removing the smaller ones. These can be used as greens. Cindy Haynes says little or no fertilizer is needed in fertile soils. She does suggest covering the soil with a little mulch to protect it during rains and dry periods. She also suggests putting a __________ around the plants to keep away rabbits and __________. She says the only work needed once beets have been __________ is weeding and, when the weather is dry, a weekly watering. For best results, beets should be picked when the roots are two and one-half centimeters around. Beets much larger than that can be __________ and have to be cooked for a long time. Some people like beets prepared simply in butter. Others like to cook them with __________ and __________.

53 Trying to Understand Food Labels

1 julio, 2020
It can be hard to decide which foods to buy in an American grocery _____________ these days. The information on many products makes different claims. These labels suggest that the food is safe, pure or kind to animals. The label «organic» guarantees that the United States Department of Agriculture recognizes the product was grown under _____________ conditions. The department says foods that meet requirements of its National Organic Program can use an official label. It shows the words «USDA Organic» inside a _____________. For example, U.S.D.A. organic food does not contain genes that have been scientifically changed. The food is grown without _____________ treatments against insects or disease. It is grown without chemical fertilizers. The U.S.D.A. organic label on meat and dairy _____________ guarantees that they are from animals that live much of the time outdoors. The animals have been _____________ only organic food. The animals have not received antibiotic drugs. And they have not had hormone substances to make them grow _____________. Organic meat and dairy products usually cost more than other products. But many people buy them because they believe they are more _____________. The U.S.D.A. is trying to decide if fish can be labeled «organic.» A decision is not expected for many months. However, the Marine Stewardship Council says its label promises that fish are not _____________ and were caught without harming the local _____________. There are also labels on coffee. Some coffee growers plant their _____________ on land with no natural plants to provide shade from the sun. Other coffee is grown under trees that provide shade for the coffee and homes for _____________. This coffee is labeled «Bird Friendly.» The Smithsonian Migratory Bird Council of the National Zoo in Washington, D.C., guarantees coffee with the «Bird Friendly» label. Other food labels include «natural,» «cage-free» and «free-range.» Experts say it may be harder for the food buyer to decide what these mean. For example, chickens may not have been raised in a cage. Still, they may have been in overcrowded conditions inside a _____________. The Department of Agriculture will be holding meetings with food producers and the public to try to _____________ requirements for labels.

52 A Cool Way to Keep Food From Spoiling

30 junio, 2020
A few ___________ can make a big difference when it comes to food storage. Foods can go bad if they get too warm. But for many of the world’s poor, finding a good way to keep food cool is difficult. Refrigerators are ___________ and they need electricity. Yet spoiled food not only creates health risks but also economic ___________. Farmers lose money when they have to throw away products that they cannot sell quickly. But in nineteen ninety-five a teacher in northern Nigeria named Mohammed Bah Abba found a solution. He developed the «Pot-in-Pot Preservation/Cooling System.» It uses two ___________ containers made of clay. A smaller pot is placed inside a larger one. The space between the two pots is filled with wet ___________. The inner pot can be filled with fruit, vegetables or drinks. A wet cloth covers the whole cooling system. Food stored in the smaller pot is ___________ from spoiling through a simple evaporation process. Water in the sand between the two pots evaporates through the surface of the larger pot, where ___________ outside air is moving. The evaporation process creates a drop in temperature of ___________ degrees. This cools the inner pot and helps keep food safe from harmful bacteria. Some foods can be kept fresh this way for several weeks. People throughout Nigeria began using the ___________. And it became popular with farmers in other African countries. Mohammed Bah Abba personally financed the first five thousand pot-in-pot systems for his own community and five villages ___________. In two thousand, the Rolex Watch Company of Switzerland honored him with the Rolex Award for Enterprise. This award recognizes people trying to develop ___________ aimed at improving human knowledge and well-being. A committee considers projects in science and medicine, technology, exploration and discovery, the ___________ and cultural history. Winners receive financial assistance to help develop and extend their projects. The ___________ is given every two years. The most recent one was given last year.  

51 Study Says High Calorie Snacks Are to Blame for Obesity Epidemic

29 junio, 2020
DESCARGAR VIDEO IGONNA IGONNA VIDEO SNACKS   1. The study says American children eat an average of _____________ a day on top of three regular meals. three snacks. five snacks. six snacks. 2. Desserts and candy are the major source of calories from snacks. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 3. Childhood obesity has ________ over the last 30 years. remained. doubled. tripled. 4. The federal government is encouraging schools to make more time for physical activity. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 5. The Centers for Disease Control wants the government to put taxes on sugary drinks and junk food. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

50 Researchers Finding Babies Smarter Than Previously Thought

28 junio, 2020
DESCARGAR VIDEO IGONNA Health_Babies_IGONNA VIDEO     1. At Northwestern University, researchers recently concluded that well before babies start to ______, they recognize words and can link them to the things they represent. walk. cry. speak. 2. The Northwestern study indicates that one of the best things parents can do is _____________________. talk to their babies. sing to their babies. play with their babies. 3. Researchers think babies begin developing language skills while they are in the _____. bed. crib. womb. 4. Even before they are born, babies pick up the _________ of language. words. phrases. melodies. 5. Babies who are frequently talked to will be more intelligent. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

49 Pressure Mounts in US to Restrict Salt Levels in Processed Foods

27 junio, 2020
DESCARGAR VIDEO IGONNA IGONNA Much_Salt- 1. We should not eat more than _____ milligrams of sodium daily. 223. 230. 2300. 2. One major risk factor is a diet filled with _____________. fat and salt. fat. salt. 3. When the Food and Drug Administration does issue new limits on salt, the changes are made immediately. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 4. Reducing salt in the food supply needs to be a ________ process. hard. fast. gradual. 5. Some food manufacturers have already begun reducing the sodium content. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

48 More US Companies Refuse to Hire Smokers

26 junio, 2020
Descargar video IGONNA IGONNA VIDEO US 1. The federal law that prohibits smoking in public buildings was passed ____ ago. 6. 8. 10. 2. Memorial Hospital gives check-ups to prospective employees. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 3. Medical care and the loss of productivity cost in average around _______ annually for each smoker. $300. $3,000. $3,300. 4. How many U.S. states have laws that protect the right of smokers? 21. 29. 50. 5. At least five million smokers die every year from smoking-related causes in the world. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

47 Washington Struggles to Recover from Massive Snowstorm

25 junio, 2020
    DESCARGAR VIDEO IGONNA Washington_IGONNA 1. Washington received more snow in ___ hours than it usually sees in an entire winter. 16. 26. 36. 2. Flights to and from Washington were canceled. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 3. The person says: I have been in Washington for maybe ___ years. 20. 30. 40. 4. A massive snowball fight was organized at Dupont Circle. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 5. More snow is forecast for ______________________. Tuesday and Wednesday. Thursday and Sunday. Tuesday and Friday.

46 Powered Parachute Gives US Rural Police Departments Eye in the Sky

24 junio, 2020
VIDEO IGONNA DESCARGA Flying_IGONNA VIDEO 1. The parachute offers an expensive way to patrol from the air. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 2. This powered parachute costs just ____ an hour to fly. $3,50. $35. $100. 3. The parachute weighs ____ kilos. 18. 180. 188. 4. The parachute is used by ______ agencies in the US. seven. seventeen. seventy. 5. The parachute can fly as slowly as ___ kilometers per hour. 40. 24. 14.

45 London Museum Unveils Medieval, Renaissance Treasures

23 junio, 2020
DESCARGAR VIDEO IGONNA LONDON IGONNA VIDEO   1. The Victoria and Albert Museum is believed to house the finest collection of Italian __________ outside of Italy. culture. paintings. sculpture. 2. Wonderful ___________, wonderful textiles, gold and silver, enamel and jewelry. paintings. tapestries. sculptures. 3. The medieval and renaissance collections are now being displayed chronologically across ____ new galleries. 8. 10. 12. 4. The sculpture by Donatello was being used as an ashtray. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 5. The project took almost a decade to complete and cost $53 million. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

44 Moroccan Villagers Make Their Desert Bloom

22 junio, 2020
Descarga el video, observa y escucha para poder elegir la respuesta correcta.   DESCARGAR MoroccoOrganicIGONNA hey received donations to drill a well. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 2. «Last year, I sold ___________ kilos of green peas,» Lamine said. 4 to 5. 40 to 50. 400 to 500. 3. «Tomatoes, watermelon, _________, carrots, turnips, peppers — we’ve got all vegetables here,» Baiach said. potatoes. lettuce. pumpkins. 4. The farmers pay to keep the pump running. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 5. In the past, they used to work as their fathers did. True. False. It’s not said on the video.

43 Roof Top Gardening is a Growing Trend in New York City

21 junio, 2020
Descarga el video igonna referente al tema, observa, escucha y responde con la respuesta que consideras correcta que a continuación se te presentan. DESCARGAR: ROOFTOPIGONNA   1. What started as an interest in sustainability has become a rooftop oasis, complete with tomatoes, cucumbers, ________ and herbs. apples. lettuce. carrots. 2. The couple learned how to make soil, grow plants, capture __________, and trap urban heat. air. rainwater. clients. 3. «Also, with so many people on the planet, we can’t all have ____ acres,» Kusmenko says. 10. 100. 1000. 4. Roberta’s Pizzeria bought two old railway cars and planted vegetables on top of them. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 5. Rooftop farms can provide ________ produce. cheaper. faster. more expensive.

42 Desert Museum in Arizona Exhibits Native Plants and Animals

20 junio, 2020
DESCARGA EL SIGUIENTE VIDEO IGONNA Y OBSÉRVALO DETENIDAMENTE DESDE TU COMPUTADOR, CELULAR O TABLETA DIGITAL. SEGUIDO DE ELLO RESPONDE A LOS NUMERALES ESCOGIENDO LA RESPUESTA CORRECTA. DESCARGA AQUI!  IGONNA VIDEO 1   1. The mountain lion is ____________ cat native to North America. the smallest. the wildest. the largest. 2. More than 300 animal species and _____ types of plants are found along 3 kilometer-long paths. 120. 1200. 12000. 3. The prairie dog is _________ that lives in underground tunnels. a dog. a worm. a rodent. 4. The black bear is the only bear species in Arizona. True. False. It’s not said on the video. 5. Bird Trainer Dillon Horger says the birds don’t fly away because ______ they consider the Desert Museum their territory. they are trained to come back. they are in cages.  

41 Cameras Capture Pictures of Mysterious Bush Dog

19 junio, 2020
Scientists say they have captured photographs of one of the most mysterious known animals: bush dogs. Bush dogs live in Central and South America. They are a rarely seen and threatened __________. But the photos suggest they may be more common than scientists thought. Scientists used cameras that take photos in the forest when an animal passes by. Photos of the bush dogs were taken in wild areas of __________. The traps can be found across the country from its Costa Rican border to its border with Colombia. Ricardo Moreno is a research associate for the Smithsonian Institution. He and a team of biologists from Yaguará, Panama are studying large, wild mammals in that country. He says, «The bush dog is one of the __________ species that we photograph.» The researchers describe the animals as «short-legged and stubby, standing only about a foot (30cm) tall at the __________.» Like other dogs, bush dogs hunt in packs of up to __________. They are known to communicate to each other using «high-pitched whines.» They eat mostly large forest rodents. The bush dog is so elusive that photos of the animal were made only 11 times over __________ camera days. That is the number of cameras multiplied by the days in operation. The International Union for Conservation of Nature says bush dog populations have dropped by up to __________ percent over the past 12 years. It is considered a «near-threatened» species. Humans do not hunt or directly threaten bush dogs. But, habitat loss is affecting their __________. They live mainly in rainforests. Scientists think the animals may require large forest spaces to survive. It is estimated that Panama lost __________ percent of its rainforest from 1990 to 2010. I’m Kathleen Struck.

40 Secret to Life? Dance, and Don’t Procrastinate!

19 junio, 2020
1. Where was this lady born? India. England. USA. 2. How old is she? 87. 93. 97. 3. She has been teaching yoga, full-time, since _____. 1957. 1963. 1967. 4. Even when she was ___, she won dance competitions. 65. 75. 85. 5. What is she going to do when she retire? She will not retire. She will travel around the world. She will write a book.

39 Making Friends Not Always Easy for Foreign Students

18 junio, 2020
A recent story in the Chronicle of Higher Education said many foreign students report feeling _________ or unwelcome in Australia. Those feelings are among the reasons why Australia is taking a close look at its international education industry. The government has formed an advisory council to help develop a _________ -year national strategy for the future of international education in Australia. But wherever international students go, making friends may not always be easy. The Journal of International and Intercultural Communication recently published a study done in the United States. Elisabeth Gareis of Baruch College in New York surveyed _________  international students. They were attending four-year colleges and graduate schools in the American South and Northeast. Students from English-speaking countries and from northern and central Europe were more _________  to be happy with their friendships. But _________  percent of the international students said they had no close friends in the United States. And half of the students from East Asia said they were unhappy with the number of American friends they had. Professor Gareis says thirty percent said they wished their friendships could be _________  and more meaningful. ELISABETH GAREIS: «Students from East Asia have cultures that are different on many _________  from the culture in the United States. But then there’s also language problems, and maybe some social _________ , such as small talk, that are possibly not as important in their native countries, where it’s not as important to initiate friendships with small talk.» She says many East Asian students blamed themselves for their limited friendships with Americans. ELISABETH GAREIS: «The vast majority _________  themselves, actually for not speaking the language well enough, not knowing the culture well enough. There were also some comments about the college environment, like many of them were in the natural sciences or worked in _________  where they were surrounded by other East Asians.» VOA’s Student Union blogger Jessica Stahl did her own survey to find out how American students and foreign students relate to each other. More than _________  students, about half of them American, answered her online questions. Half of the international students and _________  percent of the Americans said they related as well or better to the other group than to their own group. Eighty-five percent of the Americans said they have at least one international friend. But only about half said they have more than two international friends. Among the foreign students, _________  percent said they have more than two American friends. But ten percent said they have no American friends. Not surprisingly, Professor Gareis says students who _________  friends from their host country return home happier with their experience. ELISABETH GAREIS: «International students who make friends with host _________  are, overall, more satisfied with their stay in the host country. They have better language skills, they have better academic performance and they have better _________  toward the host country. So when they return home, and often fill leadership positions, they can _________  productive relations with the former host country.» And that’s the VOA Special English Education Report, written by Jerilyn Watson. I’m Jim Tedder.

38 A Flower in Winter: The Story of the Poinsettia

17 junio, 2020
Poinsettias are the best-selling potted flowering plant in the United States. Red poinsettias are a traditional part of _____________ celebrations, which is why almost all of them are sold at wintertime. The Department of Agriculture estimates that Americans bought $ _____________  million worth of poinsettias last year. The poinsettia is native to Central America and needs warmth to grow. Bright red poinsettias are the best known. But there are about _____________  different kinds, in colors including white, pink, yellow and purple. The flowers of the poinsettia are very _____________ . Around the flowers are colorful leaves called bracts. These bracts are what give the plants their beauty. The poinsettia is named for Joel Roberts Poinsett from South Carolina. In _____________  President John Quincy Adams appointed him as the United States’ first minister to Mexico. Poinsett had an interest in plants. He saw the colorful plants growing in the wild. Wild poinsettias can grow up to _____________  meters tall. He liked them so much that he sent some cuttings back to the United States. The botanical name for the plant is Euphorbia pulcherrima. In Latin, that means «most beautiful euphorbia.» There are hundreds of related plants, including rubber trees, trees that produce castor and tung oil, and the cassava, a root crop. People who are allergic to the latex produced by rubber trees can develop a mild skin rash from poinsettia plants. Babies and _____________  that chew on poinsettias can get sick. But experts say the plant is not as poisonous as some people think. In the 1920s, Albert Ecke and his son Paul became interested in the poinsettia’s ability to flower in _____________ . Paul Ecke thought it would be a good plant to display at Christmastime. They started a farm near Encinitas, California. At first, Paul Ecke, and later his son, grew large plants in fields. Then they sent them to growers by _____________ . Growers would divide the large plants into cuttings, to raise smaller ones in greenhouses until the holidays. In the 1960s came poinsettias that grew best in _____________ . The Eckes started to sell cuttings from these new plants. Today Ecke Ranch remains a major supplier in the United States and around the world. In August, Paul Ecke’s grandson announced that the company was joining the Dutch-based Agribio Group.

37 In the Garden: Growing Onions

16 junio, 2020
Onions come in different sizes, ___________, colors and flavors, from mild and sweet to hot and ___________. A full-grown onion plant has roots, bulbs and leaves. The leaves are long, thin and hollow. They stand straight up and thicken at the bottom to form a bulb. Onions are biennials; their life cycle is ___________ years long. But they are usually picked during their first year before flowers form and the bulbs stop growing. Onions grow best in loose, fertile ___________. They can grow in many different climates. In cooler climates, onions may need fourteen to fifteen hours of daylight to start forming bulbs. In ___________ climates, onions can begin developing bulbs with fewer hours of daily sun. Barbara Fick is an extension agent at Oregon State University, in the northwestern United States. She says a ___________ way to grow onions is to plant what are called sets. BARBARA FICK: «Onion sets are actually ___________ plants, versus starting with a seed. So when you have a set, onion set, it actually is, you know, the small bulb. Organic material like compost or leaf mulch can help onions grow in heavy soil. The bulbs can be pulled from the ground once their tops have dried and fallen over. Onions can be stored for ___________. But Barbara Fick says stored onions need to be cured first. BARBARA FICK: «Curing is a way of making sure those leaves on the outside are ___________ and dry.» Here are some directions from editors at the National Gardening Association. First, dry the onions in the sun for a day or so. Then bring them out of ___________ sun for two to three weeks. Spread them out in any warm, airy place that is covered. Or cover the onions with a light cotton sheet held in place with stones along the edge. The sheet will keep the sun from burning the bulbs. Don’t worry about ___________. And do not use a plastic or canvas sheet. Heavy coverings will trap moisture and keep the onions from drying fully. Turn the bulbs a couple of times to help them dry ___________. After curing the onions, you can hang them indoors in mesh ___________ to dry even more. There should be no wet spots on the onions when they are put in storage. Editors at the National Gardening Association say the longer onions are cured, the better they will keep. Some people cut off the top leaves before curing onions. If you do that, do not cut the leaves any closer than two and a ___________ centimeters from the bulb.

36 Golden Gate Bridge Still Shines After 75 Years

15 junio, 2020
The Golden Gate Bridge is celebrating its seventy-fifth anniversary. The bridge opened to vehicle traffic on May _____________________, nineteen thirty-seven. Since then, more than two billion vehicles have crossed the world famous structure between San Francisco and Marin County, California. As many as _____________________ cars make the trip each day. The Golden Gate Bridge had the longest suspension span in the world, at the time it was built. The suspended roadway stretches _____________________ meters between the bridge’s two tall towers. Today it still rates among the top ten longest bridge spans in existence. Mary Currie works for the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District. She says the bridge is one of the most extraordinary engineering projects of all time. MARY CURRIE: “The Golden Gate Bridge is an engineering marvel certainly, and it gets award after award after award for what it means in civil engineering and structural engineering. It’s also a place where things happen first. For example, we were the first suspension bridge to have to change the roadway _____________________.” The Golden Gate Bridge is named after the Golden Gate Strait. That narrow passage of water connects the San Francisco Bay to the Pacific Ocean. Joseph Strauss was the chief engineer of the Golden Gate Bridge project. Work began in _____________________. The project took four years to complete. The bridge is _____________________ meters long from one end to the other. It is twenty-seven meters wide. Two large cables pass over the top of the bridge’s towers. These structures stand two hundred twenty seven meters above water and _____________________ meters above the road. Each cable holds more than twenty-seven thousand five hundred strands of wire. _____________________ pairs of vertical suspender ropes connect the support cables to the suspension bridge. This is part of what enables the bridge to move up and down by nearly five meters. The Golden Gate Bridge weighed eight hundred eleven million five hundred thousand kilograms when it was completed in nineteen thirty-seven. The San Francisco Chronicle newspaper called the finished project, “a thirty-five million dollar steel harp!” Architect Irving Morrow gets credit for the bridge’s bright orange color. The Navy wanted the bridge painted in yellow and black. The Air Force had suggested red and white. MARY CURRIE: “But we were fortunate that Irving Morrow knew that that color would blend with the environment, it would contrast with the ocean and the air above, and it would also allow the art deco styling to really _____________________.”

35 What Is the Relationship Between Age and Happiness?

14 junio, 2020
1. Researchers found that by the age of 85, people are happier with their life than they were at 18. True. False. It’s not said on the text. 2. They found that the most stressed people are between the ages of 18 and 22. between the ages of 22 and 25. between the ages of 50 and 60. 3. According to the report, the happiest people were the youngest adults and those in their early 60s. those in their early 70s. those in their early 80s. 4. Men and women have similar emotional patterns as they grow older. True. False. It’s not said on the text. 5. Having children affects the level of happiness related to age. True. False. It’s not said on the text.

34 Tomato’s Genetic Secrets Are Peeled Away

13 junio, 2020
Scientists have made a genetic map of the tomato. Tomatoes are second only to _________ as the world’s most valuable vegetable crop. Eight years of work went into making the map, or genome. Three hundred scientists around the world took part in the project to sequence the tomato’s DNA code. Giovanni Giuliano, a researcher in Italy, is part of the Tomato Genome Consortium. GIOVANNI GIULIANO: «We started as ten countries and we now are _________.» Mr. Giuliano says having the tomato’s genetic map will help growers who are always trying to produce a better tomato. GIOVANNI GIULIANO: «And of course, this will be facilitated now by the fact that we now know not only what genes are there, but their _________.» Researchers published the genome of a tomato used by Heinz, the American food company famous for its tomato _________. The thick sauce is used on hamburgers, hot dogs and other foods. Heinz’s research manager, Rich Ozminkowski, says the company knows what it wants in a tomato. RICH OZMINKOWSKI: «Traits like sugars and, for Heinz, viscosity, or the juice thickness, and the redness of the tomatoes are all very critical traits for us, for our products. Those are all controlled by a lot of different genes within a tomato naturally.» Mr. Ozminkowski says genome sequencing takes away much of the guesswork for _________ of tomatoes or other crops that have been mapped. RICH OZMINKOWSKI: «By having the genome information, we can pick out those tomato plants that have more of those genes.» Until the late _________, the tomatoes that Heinz used to make ketchup often cracked open on the vine after a heavy rain. RICH OZMINKOWSKI: «Heinz had set about trying to put together a variety of tomatoes that would resist that cracking.» Breeders used the traditional methods of mating generations of different _________. The tomatoes they were trying to develop not only had to resist cracking. They also had to resist disease. And they had to be easy to harvest mechanically. Finally the company came up with the tomato it wanted, called the Heinz 1706. Mr. Ozminkowski says the job would have been much _________ if there had been a genetic map to follow. RICH OZMINKOWSKI: «The tools available back when 1706 was developed, it was all very, very conventional breeding. There were no genetic tools. You could not look at sequences. You could not do _________. And that is what makes the genomic project and the technologies that have spun off of that so interesting.» But the work is not just about making better ketchup. Climate change may force many crops to adjust to new conditions. And Mr. Ozminkowski says researchers are already using the new genetic tools to help fight new _________ diseases. RICH OZMINKOWSKI: «And so this is going to give us even more, because there are new diseases that are becoming problems within California and around the world.» Researchers published the tomato genome in the journal Nature.

33 Worried That People Are Laughing at You?

12 junio, 2020
Imagine this situation. You pass a group of people. The people are __________ to each other. You cannot hear what they are saying. But suddenly they start laughing. What would you think? Would you think they were laughing __________ something funny that one of them said? Or — be honest with yourself — would you think they were laughing __________ you? Yes, you. Being laughed at is a common __________. But a major study published in two thousand nine found that this fear is not the same around the world. It differs from culture to culture. People in Finland were the least likely to believe that people laughing in their presence were making __________ of them. Less than __________ percent of Finns in the study said they would think that, compared to __________ percent of people in Thailand. Some people in the study said they felt __________ of themselves in social situations but hid their feelings of insecurity. Others said they avoided social situations where they had been laughed at before. The study found that people in Turkmenistan and Cambodia were more likely to be in the first group. They would hide their feelings of __________ if they were around other people’s laughter. But people in Iraq, Egypt and Jordan were more likely to try to avoid such situations if they felt they had been laughed at before. Shy people often avoid situations that would force them into close __________ with other people. They worry that something they say or do will make other people laugh at them. But some people worry much more than others. They may have a __________ called gelotophobia. Gelos is a Greek word. It means laughter. Phobia means fear. This fear of laughter can be truly sad for those who live with it. It can affect how they lead their lives. In the study, a team from the University of Zurich led more than __________ researchers from around the world. They wanted to understand the difference between normal shyness and true gelotophobia. Another purpose of the study was to compare the levels of fear of being laughed at in different cultures. The researchers surveyed more than twenty-two thousand people in __________ different languages. The findings appeared in the scientific journal Humor.

32 How a Small Change in Teaching May Create Better Readers

11 junio, 2020
Teachers and parents usually call attention to the __________ when they read storybooks to preschool children. But a new study suggests that calling attention to the words and __________ on the page may lead to better readers. The two-year study compared children who were read to this way in class with children who were not. Those whose teachers most often discussed the __________ showed clearly higher skills in reading, spelling and understanding. These results were found one year and even two years later. Shayne Piasta, an assistant professor of teaching and learning at Ohio State University, was an author of the study. She says most __________ teachers would find this method manageable and would need only a small change in the way they teach. They already read storybooks in class. The only difference would be __________ attention to the printed text. Ms. Piasta says if you get children to pay attention to letters and words, it makes sense that they will do better at word recognition and __________. But she says research suggests that very few parents and teachers do this in a systematic way. The report appears in the journal Child Development. More than three hundred children age four and five were observed in classrooms in Ohio and Virginia. The children came from poor families and were below __________ in their language skills. This put them at risk for reading problems later. For __________ weeks, the children took part in a program called Project STAR, for Sit Together And Read. The project is based at Ohio State. It tests the short-term and long-term results of reading regularly to preschool children in their classrooms. Laura Justice at Ohio State was an investigator for the study. She heads the Preschool Language and Literacy Laboratory. She says one of the __________ that interests researchers is known as the «locus of learning.» LAURA JUSTICE: «Where is it that a child learns something? Where is that __________? We think we have identified it pretty well in terms of fostering some children’s knowledge about print.» Professor Justice says this knowledge can be gained by having focused discussions when reading a book to a child. LAURA JUSTICE: «We think we understand how information about print is __________ from the adult to the child. And we think we have centered on this intervention that really helps adults center in on the things that children __________ and want to learn.» There are different ways that adults can talk to children about print. They can point to a letter and discuss it, and even trace the __________ with a finger. They can point out a word: «This is ‘dog.'» They can discuss the meaning of the print or how the words tell the story. And they can talk about the __________ of the print — for instance, showing how words are written left to right in English.

31 Living in a World With Facial Recognition

10 junio, 2020
A new study looks at privacy in a world where computers can increasingly recognize faces in a ____________ or online. Alessandro Acquisti at Carnegie Mellon University’s Heinz College in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, led the study. Professor Acquisti says social networks like Facebook and LinkedIn represent some of the world’s largest databases of ____________. He sees increasing threats to privacy in facial recognition software and cloud computing — the ability to store huge amounts of information in data centers. ALESSANDRO ACQUISTI: «The convergence of all these technologies — face recognition, social networks, cloud computing — and all these advances in statistical re-identification techniques and ____________ mining are creating this world where you can blend together online and offline data. You can start from an anonymous face and end up with sensitive inferences about that ____________.” Recognition systems measure things like the size and position of a ____________, the distance between the eyes and the shape of cheekbones. The software ____________ lots of images to try to identify the person. This is what the professor means by «statistical re-identification techniques.» Facial recognition programs are used in ____________ and security operations. But the software is increasingly popular in other uses, including social media sites. For the study, the Carnegie Mellon team used software from Pittsburg Pattern Recognition, or PittPat. Google bought that company last month. The software can recognize faces in photos and ____________. The researchers did three experiments. First, they collected profile photos from a dating website. Its users try to ____________ their privacy by not listing their real name. But comparing their photos to pictures on Facebook identified one out of ____________ people. In the second experiment, the Carnegie Mellon researchers asked permission to take pictures of students on ____________. They compared these to photos on Facebook. This time they correctly identified one-third of the students. In the third experiment, they tried to see how much they could learn about people just from a photo. They found not only names but ____________, personal interests and even locations, when people listed them. And Professor Acquisti says the technology is only improving. ALESSANDRO ACQUISTI: “Because face recognizers keep improving ____________, because cloud computing keeps offering more power, and because more and more images of ourselves are going to be online, we are getting really close to this future where what we did as a proof of concept will be possible to do by anyone on a massive ____________.” In June, Facebook launched a facial recognition system to help users «tag» or list the names of people in photos. Germany last month became the first country to declare this software an ____________ violation of privacy.

30 A Fatter World, Yet Fewer Cases of High Blood Pressure

9 junio, 2020
Last week a study of one hundred ninety-nine countries and territories confirmed what many people may have already noticed. People around the ____________ are getting fatter. The study found that obesity has almost doubled since nineteen eighty. Majid Ezzati at Imperial College London led the research team. He says the results show that obesity, high blood pressure and high cholesterol are no longer just found in wealthy ____________. These are now worldwide problems. The study appeared in the Lancet. It shows that in two thousand eight, almost ten percent of men were obese. That was up from about five percent in nineteen eighty. That same year, almost eight percent of women were obese. By two thousand eight, the ____________ of obesity among women was almost fourteen percent. Obesity is commonly measured by body mass index, or BMI. This is a measure of a person’s ____________ in relation to height. A person with a BMI of twenty-five to twenty-nine is considered overweight. The World Health Organization defines obesity as a body mass index of thirty or more. Pacific island nations have an average BMI of around thirty-five — the ____________ in the world. But the study found that the United States had the single highest average among wealthy countries. Men and women had an average BMI of over twenty-eight. New Zealand was next. Japan had the lowest, at about twenty-two for women and twenty-four for men. The report had some good news, however, about high blood pressure,. The percentage of people with this major cause of ____________ attacks and strokes has fallen since nineteen eighty. Dr. Ezzati credits improved testing and treatment in wealthy countries. He says a decrease in the use of salt and unhealthful fats probably also helped. In the United States, new guidelines urge Americans to reduce salt, sugar and fatty meats and to eat more ____________ and whole grains. People are being urged to choose water over sugared drinks and to make fruits and vegetables half of a meal. But whatever they eat, Americans are being urged to follow new advice from the government: eat less. Lynn Goldman, dean of public health at George Washington University, praised the dietary guidelines released last week. LYNN GOLDMAN: «This is a call to go back to older ways of eating, to eating whole foods, whole grains, fruits and ____________, more healthy foods. And hopefully these guidelines will be noticed worldwide and people will take steps to both increase their physical activity and to eat ____________.»

29 Looking to Robots and Other Technology to Improve Health Care

9 junio, 2020
An organization called the World Future Society publishes a yearly report about how technology, the economy and society are influencing the world. Tim Mack heads the World Future Society. He says medicine is one _________ of growth. TIM MACK: “I was surprised by the enormous growth in medical technology.” Mr. Mack says the fields of nanotechnology, biotechnology and information technology are working together to create new ways to _________  patients. These include better ways to provide medicine and identify disease without invasive _________ . Mr. Mack also says developments in artificial intelligence could lead to a future where disabled patients could be cared for by a _________ -activated robot. The World Future Society also publishes The Futurist magazine. Every year it examines developments in technology and other areas to _________  the future. The magazine released the top ten predictions from the Outlook 2011 report. Several of the predictions dealt with technology. The report said Internet search engines will soon include both text and _________  results. It said television broadcasts and other recordings could be gathered using programs developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for Intelligent Analysis. Outlook 2011 also examined refuse collection. It said industrial nations will send much more _________  to developing countries. This will cause protests in those countries. In about fifteen years, developing countries will stop accepting foreign waste. This will force _________  nations to develop better waste-to-energy programs and recycling technologies. The report also had a prediction about education. It said young people use technologies for socializing as well as _________  and learning. So they solve problems more as teams instead of competing. In this way, social networking is supporting different kinds of learning outside the _________ . The World Future Society also predicts that robots will be able to carry out mental commands from human beings. Scientists have shown that individuals can type by using their brains without physically touching computer _________ . In the near future, experts say brain e-mailing and “tweeting” will become more common.

28 Taking a Closer Look at the Future of Video Conferencing

7 junio, 2020
High-quality systems used in video conferencing are called telepresence systems. The images are life-size yet not truly lifelike. They lack the depth that people would normally ____________ if they were in the same room together. But this could change in the future with new kinds of three-dimensional telepresence systems. Last week, we told you about a 3-D system at the University of Arizona. Researchers can send a ____________ image over the Internet and show it on a special screen in close to real time. People would not have to wear special glasses like they often ____________ to watch 3-D movies. The system uses a lot of cameras to take pictures of a person from different ____________. Lasers reproduce the pictures combined into three-dimensional images, or holograms. The image appears more realistic with the more cameras that are used and the more pictures that are ____________. Howard Lichtman is president of the Human Productivity Lab. His company advises other companies on buying and using telepresence systems. Mr. Lichtman also publishes Telepresence Options, which reports on the industry. He says this latest development would have done wonders for the «Star Wars» movie with the famous «Princess Leia» hologram scene. HOWARD LICHTMAN: «For Princess Leia to ____________, Princess Leia needs to move and her mouth needs to move, etc. And you haven’t been able to do that with a regular hologram because the hologram would only be fixed in one spot. What they’re able to do is, they’re able to refresh that image so that the image changes the same way a person changes when they ____________.» The researchers in Arizona say their 3-D system is still years away from completion. Even then, Howard Lichtman says it may have ____________ competing with systems already on the market. Most telepresence systems are two-dimensional. But Mr. Lichtman says the images are very realistic. HOWARD LICHTMAN: «It’s a 2-D image, but it’s ____________ clear, photo realistic, fluid movement, accurate flesh tones, and you would swear you were in the same physical space with people who might be thousands of miles away.» He says prices for telepresence systems are going down as more people use the technology. HOWARD LICHTMAN: «It’s pushing down to everybody as these environments are becoming publicly available or you can ____________ them by the hour, and at the same time that you’re getting very high quality, high definition video conferencing showing up on mobile devices and in the home delivered through the set-top box or through the PC.» A new eighteen-million-dollar project aims to create eleven telepresence centers for federal ____________ around the United States. The government is working with the AT&T company to save money and reduce ____________ by reducing the need for travel.

27 PC Recycler Strikes Gold in Old Computer Chips

6 junio, 2020
Each year, Americans throw away millions of __________ of electronic devices. That means business is good for a small electronics recycler in Chantilly, Virginia. Company President Jeremy Faber established PC Recycler. He spoke to us from the floor of his company’s processing center. Workers were busy taking apart televisions, __________  phones and computers — anything electronic. Jeremy Faber says the flow of discarded electronics is only increasing. JEREMY FABER: “Electronics recycling is the fastest growing waste stream in the United States right now.” Recycling electronic waste is not a single __________ . Newer devices can be rebuilt and resold. Breaking down electronics into small parts for refiners to melt and purify is another part of the business. Operations Manager Andrew Portare says computer circuit boards are rich __________ . ANDREW PORTARE: “Boards have the highest scrap value in them so you can actually see on the back you’re looking at different types of __________ . This one is a really good example. Some of the older ones are mainly all gold.” Gold now sells for more than one thousand three hundred dollars an ounce. Twenty-five percent of PC Recycler’s sales come from selling __________  to refiners. Refining companies pay more than ten dollars a kilogram for computer boards. PC Recycler can also lift profits by holding metal-rich parts until prices rise. ANDREW PORTARE: “If copper’s up one day, we can ship all of our copper extract and capitalize on the market.” Computers also hold private or __________  information. And securing that data is the fastest growing part of PC Recycler’s business. Completely removing data from a computer hard drive is not easy. PC Recycler can remove data magnetically or completely __________  and recycle the drives. Discarding waste in a way that meets government environmental protection rules is also important. Old TVs can contain over a kilogram of __________  as well as cadmium — both highly poisonous. PC Recycler supports the Basel Action Network, which seeks to limit harmful waste and technology. The company says it does not export electronics to China, India or Africa where environmental rules are __________ . Jeremy Faber says PC Recycler has been in business since two thousand three, expanding from waste management to other, more technical services. JEREMY FABER: “There really isn’t a lot of industries out there that are like this. There’s either the scrap industry where they’re shredding __________  and shredding tires and there’s the refurbished PC market and we’re sort of sit right in between both of those.”

26 Pretty Flowers Lead Two Scientists to a Discovery

5 junio, 2020
Not all research begins with a plan. Some studies begin by ___________. Meredith Schafer says that is what happened with her and Cynthia Sagers. Cynthia Sagers is a biology  ___________ at the University of Arkansas. Meredith Schafer is a graduate student. They were traveling in the state of North Dakota on a project. They noticed pretty  ___________ flowers. They recognized them as canola. Farmers grow canola for seeds to make cooking oil. Canola is also used for animal feed and biofuel. But the canola plants they saw were not growing in farm fields. They were growing along the  ___________. The researchers decided to test the plants. They had brought along special testing  ___________ for the project they were working on. They crushed some of the leaves in water and added the test strips. The results showed that the weedy canola plants contained genetic changes. If a plant is genetically modified, that means its genes have been changed to produce desired  ___________. This summer, the researchers from Arkansas went back to North Dakota. This time they went on a road trip to find canola. They traveled more than five thousand kilometers. They stopped about every eight kilometers to count plants and take samples to test in their  ___________. What they found, they say, was the first discovery in the United States of wild canola plants with modified genes. Meredith Schafer presented the findings at a recent  ___________ of the Ecological Society of America. The scientists found canola plants in almost half of the places they investigated. They tested a total of two hundred eighty-eight plants. They found that eighty percent of those plants contained genes from genetically engineered canola. Some crop plants are modified to resist damage from the  ___________ that farmers spray to kill weeds. There are two proteins that can give canola the ability to resist two commonly used herbicides. One protein gives resistance against glyphosate. The other protein gives resistance against glufosinate. Two of the plants growing in the wild showed resistance to both kinds of weed killers. Professor Sagers says canola varieties with these genetic qualities have not been released on the  ___________. This suggests the result of wild populations reproducing on their own.

25 Farming in the City: Joys of Growing Food

4 junio, 2020
For many years, people in American cities have depended on farmers in rural areas to grow fruits and ___________. But now a new generation of farmers is planting crops in urban areas. Sean Conroe is a college student. Amber Banks is a teacher. They both grew up farming and gardening. Sean Conroe and Amber Banks wanted to start a farm in the ___________ of Seattle, Washington. AMBER BANKS: «There are a lot of neighborhoods that don’t have access to healthy, fresh produce. And if they do, it can be very ___________. So we see unused space as a great place to grow food that will make it more accessible for people.» Sean Conroe created a website to get volunteers and ___________. Within a week, they were offered a plot of land between two houses. He says twenty volunteers worked for six weekends to turn the grassy land into a farm. They call their project Alleycat Acres. SEAN CONROE: «We have ___________, onions, radish, lettuce and chard that’s all ready to be harvested right now.» There are also carrots, green onions, peas, beans and turnips. SEAN CONROE: «Broccoli, tomatillos and cucumbers which are all starting to pop up. And then ___________.» The Alleycats have harvested about ninety kilograms of produce so far. They have donated most of it to local food banks that feed ___________ people in Seattle. Bridget Barni is sitting in the dirt picking lettuce. She is one of eighty people who are volunteering at this urban farm. Like a lot of the volunteers, she does not have much gardening experience. One of the goals of the urban farm is to show city people the joys of growing food. The Alleycats invite school ___________ to the farm to help out. And Amber Banks says they want the same people who get food donations to learn how to work the soil. Sean Conroe says Alleycat Acres is expanding to other ___________ areas of Seattle. So are a lot of other urban farming groups. SEAN CONROE: «We’d like to expand as much as we can where there are empty lots that have ample amounts of sunlight, that have access to ___________ and that have a community rallying around projects such as this.» Seattle has declared two thousand ten «The Year of Urban Agriculture.» But the growth of these farms is limited. That is because Seattle, like a lot of other cities, has ___________ on urban farms. The City Council is now considering changing those laws. And that’s the VOA Special English Agriculture Report, by Ann Dornfeld. Support came from the Park Foundation, the Gaylord and Dorothy Donnelly Foundation and the Great Lakes Fishery Trust.

24 National Standards for US Schools Gain Support From States

3 junio, 2020
Americans have never had national education standards. Goals for what __________ schools should teach are set by state and local school boards. Their members are often elected. But some Americans say the lack of national standards is wrong in a competitive __________  economy. Former president Bill Clinton said it was as if somehow school boards «could legislate differences in algebra or __________  or reading.» President George W. Bush and Congress expanded federal intervention. His education law, still in effect, required states to show yearly __________  in student learning as measured by the states’ own tests. Now, the Obama administration supports what are known as the Common Core State Standards. These were developed in a year-long process led by state governors and chief state school officers. Texas and Alaska were the only states not to __________  part. The standards are in two subject areas, English-language arts and mathematics. They establish goals for each __________  from kindergarten through grade twelve. The aim is for students to finish high school fully prepared for college and careers. The developers considered standards in other countries, along with almost one hundred thousand public comments. One way the Education Department is trying to persuade states is with __________ . States are competing to share in almost three and a half billion dollars as part of a school reform competition. They will earn extra points in the Race to the Top if they approve the standards by August second. States are trying to __________  from the recession. There are concerns that some could accept the standards and then lack the money to follow them. The final standards were released June second. A new report say about half the states have __________  them already. The Thomas B. Fordham Institute is an education group in Washington. It says the standards are clearer and stronger than those used in three-fourths of the states. But the __________  also found that existing English standards are «clearly stronger» in California, Indiana and the District of Columbia. States that approve the new standards have a right to add up to fifteen __________  of their own. In California, the State Board of Education plans to vote on August second to accept or __________  a new set of standards. These are based largely on the common core, but also existing California standards.

23 Deforestation Decreased Over the Past 10 Years

2 junio, 2020
The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization says deforestation has decreased over the past ten years. But it still continues at a high rate in many countries. Deforestation is mainly caused by the _____________ down of tropical forests to provide land for agriculture. The world’s total forest area is just over four _____________ hectares. About thirteen million hectares of forest were cut down or lost through natural causes each year in the last ten years. This compares with about sixteen million hectares per year during the nineteen nineties. The FAO study covers two hundred thirty-three countries and areas. The study found that _____________ and Indonesia have reduced their deforestation rates. The two countries had the highest loss of forests in the nineteen nineties. In addition, the study noted tree-planting programs in countries such as China, India, Vietnam and the United States. These programs, along with natural _____________ of forests in some areas, have added more than seven million hectares of new forests each year. South America and Africa had the highest yearly loss of forests during the last ten years. South America lost four million hectares. Africa lost _____________ three and a half million hectares. However, Asia gained more than two million hectares a year in the last decade. In North America and Central America, the forest area remained about the same. In Europe, it continued to expand, but at a _____________ rate than earlier. Eduardo Rojas is assistant director-general of F.A.O.’s Forestry Department. He said for the first time, the rate of deforestation has decreased around the _____________. This is the result of efforts taken at local and international levels. Mister Rojas said countries have improved their forest policies and _____________. They have also provided forests for use by local communities and native peoples and for the protection of biological diversity. He said this is a welcome message in 2010 – the International Year of Biodiversity. However, Mister Rojas said the rate of deforestation is still very _____________ in many areas. He said countries must strengthen their efforts to better _____________ and manage their forests.

22 Some Advice on Choosing a College

1 junio, 2020
Last week, we told you that the number of foreign students in the United States had reached an all-time high. More than six hundred seventy-one thousand foreign students attended an American college or university during the last school year. So says the latest report from the Institute of International Education. Many international students choose ______________ schools. But a growing number of them are attending smaller ones. Douglas Bennett is the president of Earlham College, a liberal arts college in Richmond, Indiana, that actively seeks ______________ students. DOUGLAS BENNETT: «We’re a small college, just twelve hundred students. But about fifteen percent of our undergraduates come from homes outside the United States, which is astronomically ______________ for an American college or university.» Doug Bennett has written several articles aimed at helping students choose a college that best fits their needs. He says one of the important things to consider is the ______________ of a school. He says Earlham College is small for a reason. DOUGLAS BENNETT: «We aren’t that small because we couldn’t be bigger. We’re that small because we think we educate much more effectively and much more powerfully because we stay small. It stretches everyone more. It draws everyone into more different kinds of ______________.» Of course, there are also good arguments for attending a larger school. Many big schools are widely recognized. And in some cases that might lead to more job interviews than a degree from a lesser known college. Larger schools also have more ______________, which can mean more resources for education, recreation and research. In addition to size, Douglas Bennett says there are other important things to consider. For example: Which programs at the school are the ______________? Some schools have stronger programs in the sciences. Others are stronger in the liberal arts. Also, what do the school’s top students go on to do after they graduate? What kinds of activities are offered that might add to the educational experience? Are there sports ______________? What about a radio station or ______________? Something else to consider is the kinds of services that a school offers for international students. But Earlham College President Douglas Bennett says one choice tops all others. DOUGLAS BENNETT: «The most important choice you make in going to college is who you choose to be yourself. If you’re prepared to bring your best self to college, then it hardly matters where you go to college. On the other hand, if you choose not to be very ______________, not to be very responsible, not to be prepared to work very hard, you probably won’t get a good ______________.»

21 Two Studies Give a Lift to Running Barefoot

31 mayo, 2020
Two new studies suggest that modern running shoes could increase the risk of injuries to runners. One study involved sixty-eight healthy young women and men who ran at least twenty-four ______________ a week. The runners were observed on a treadmill machine. Sometimes they wore running shoes. Other times they ran barefoot. Researchers from the JKM Technologies company in Virginia, the University of Virginia and the University of Colorado did the study. They found that running shoes create more stress that could damage _________, hips and ankle joints than running barefoot. They observed that the effect was even __________ than the effect reported earlier for walking in high heels. The study appeared in the official scientific journal of the American Academy of Physical Medicine. The other study appeared in the journal Nature. It compared runners in the United States and Kenya. The researchers were from Harvard University in Massachusetts, Moi University in Kenya and the University of Glasgow in Scotland. They divided the runners into three groups. One group had always run ___________. Another group had always run with shoes. And the third group had changed to shoeless running. Runners who wear shoes usually come down heel first. That puts great _________ on the back of the foot. But the study found that barefoot runners generally land on the front or middle of their foot. That way they ease into their landing and avoid __________ their heel. Harvard’s Daniel Lieberman led the study. He says the way most running shoes are designed may explain why those who wear them land on their heels. The heel of the shoe is __________ and heavier than other parts of the shoe, so it would seem more likely to come down first. Also, the heel generally has thick material _________ it to soften landings. But the researchers do not suggest that runners immediately start running barefoot. They say it takes some __________. And there can be risks, like running when your feet are too cold to feel if you get injured. The study was partly supported by Vibram, which makes a kind of footwear that it says is like running barefoot. The findings have gotten a lot of attention. But the researchers say there are many problems in the way the _________ has reported on their paper. So they have tried to explain their findings on a Harvard Web site.

20 In the US, the New Look of Gas Exploration

30 mayo, 2020
Many people think the search for cleaner energy leads only to renewable resources like sun, wind and __________. But it also leads to a fossil fuel. Natural gas is considered the cleanest of the fossil fuels, the fuels created by plant and animal remains over millions of years. Burning it releases fewer pollutants than oil or coal. The gas is mainly methane. It produces half the carbon dioxide of other fossil fuels. So it may help cut the _________ of carbon gases linked to climate change. Russia is first in what are called «proved reserves» of natural gas. The United States is sixth. Over the years, big oil and gas companies _________ much of the easily reached supplies of gas in America. They drilled straight down into formations where gas collects. As these supplies were used up, big drillers looked for similar formations in other countries. But now the industry is taking a new look. Companies are developing gas supplies trapped in shale rock two to three thousand meters underground. They drill down to the shale, then go sideways and inject high-pressure water, sand or other material into the rock. This causes the _________ to break, or fracture, releasing the gas. Huge fields of gas shale are believed to lie under the Appalachian Mountains, Michigan and the south-central states. Gas shale exploration is being done mainly by __________ to medium sized companies. Eric Potter is a program director in the Bureau of Economic Geology at the University of Texas at Austin. ERIC POTTER: «The types of opportunities that are left for natural gas exploration in the U.S. have changed. So it’s a different class of resource — not as _____________ to develop, and not even recognized as something worth pursuing, say, twenty years ago.» He says more than half the gas in the United States is now coming from these new reserves. But hydraulic fracturing can also produce debate and anger over the ____________ of groundwater pollution. This method of drilling is not federally supervised under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Some in Congress want to end that exemption from the law. Natural gas provides Americans with about one-fourth of their energy. And, unlike oil, most of it is produced in America. Gas producers invested heavily in reaching new supplies when ____________ were high. But prices are down sharply now because the recession cut demand for energy. So energy expert Eric Potter says it is too early to know how the new gas shale reserves will affect the ___________.
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